Phytochemical Screening, Acute and Sub-chronic Toxicity Studies of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Ficus polita

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A. Nasir
A. Hamisu
A. I. Yaradua
I. U. Muhammad
A. J. Alhassan
M. S. Sule
A. Idi
A. Mohammed
A. M. Kanadi

Abstract

Ficus polita Vahl is a tropical African evergreen shrub or small tree belonging to the family Moraceae, and usually growing up to 15 metres tall. Extracts from different part of the plant had been demonstrated to exhibit various medicinal activities. Qualitative phytochemical screening of aqueous stem bark extract of F. polita was determined. Acute (LD50) and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of the extract of F. polita were evaluated in wistar albino rats. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, polyphenols, flavonoids, glycosides, anthraquinones, saponins, tannins, fats and oils, terpenoids, carbohydrates, starch, gums and mucilages, and proteins. The LD50 of this extract was estimated to be more than 5000 mg/kg. Oral administration of the extract (1000, 2000, 3000, and 4000 mg/kg body weight) revealed significant difference (p<0.05) in haematological parameters RBC, haemoglobin, PCV, MCV, MCH, and lymphocytes, in some of the treated doses. There was no significant increase (p>0.05) in MCHC, WBC, platelets, and PDW, in some of the treated doses when compared with control. Analyses of serum total protein, albumin, creatinine, urea, sodium, and chloride revealed significant changes (p<0.05) in some of the treated doses compared to their controls. However, no significant differences (p>0.05) were observed in serum liver enzymes (AST and ALT), total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, and potassium of some of the treated doses when compared to their controls. These results suggest that the aqueous stem bark extract of F. polita is rich in phytochemicals, and may be considered relatively safe at the tested doses.

 

Keywords:
Ficus polita, toxicity, aqueous, stem bark, extract

Article Details

How to Cite
Nasir, A., Hamisu, A., I. Yaradua, A., U. Muhammad, I., J. Alhassan, A., S. Sule, M., Idi, A., Mohammed, A., & M. Kanadi, A. (2017). Phytochemical Screening, Acute and Sub-chronic Toxicity Studies of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Ficus polita. Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2(2), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.9734/AJRIMPS/2017/38032
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Original Research Article