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Aims: The study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic value of Haematuria (HU) and Proteinuria (PU) detected using reagent strips compared with microscopy in the examination of Schistosoma haematobium eggs in urine in Aliero Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria.
Methodology: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study, conducted in Aliero Local Government Area between March, 2015 to June, 2016. A total of 400 participants were enrolled for the study.Ten (10 ml) of urine samples were collected from each participant in to universal containers. Samples were examined macroscopically for gross Haematuria and then tested for micro-haematuria and Proteinuria using Combi-9 reagent strip. Samples were preserved with 10% formal saline and then transported to laboratory for analysis. Samples were filtered using Vacuum pump filtration machine and Whatman No.1 filter paper and were then examined under the microscope to determine the presence of ova of S. haematobium eggs in urine.
Results: Out of 400 urine samples 128(32.0%) had infection with mean egg intensity of 63.4/10 ml of urine, with significant difference (p<0.005). Altogether, 158 samples were positive for Haematuria (HU) and 145 samples positive for Proteinuria (PU). The Sensitivity and Specificity of Haematuria were 74.4% and 86.8% respectively with Positive predictive value 81.0%, and Negative Predictive Value 81.8%. Proteinuria has Specificity of 69.2% and Sensitivity of 91.2% (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: The high sensitivity and specificity of Haematuria (HU) and Proteinuria (PU) testing, shows that it can be used as good screening test for S. haematobium infection. The overall result of the study (32.0%) shows the establishment of moderate S. haematobium infection in the study area with higher prevalence among males 35.1% than females 19.7%, fishermen 64.15% and children 10-14 years having 38.8%. Prevention and control of Schistosomiasis based on mass chemotherapeutic treatment of population at risk using praziquantel is therefore warranted to reduce morbidity.