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Aim: Phytochemical screening, toxicity and renoprotective effects of methanol extract of Parquetina nigrescens (MEPN) in diabetic Wistar rats were investigated.
Methods: Twenty-five rats divided into five groups (n=5) were used for this study. Groups 1 and 2 served as normal control and diabetic untreated respectively and each received 0.3 ml distilled water. Groups 3-5 served as diabetic groups treated with 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg MEPN and 100 mg/kg metformin respectively. Active compounds in MEPN were identified using GC/MS analysis while Phytochemical screening was done following standards procedures. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (CRT) and albumin (Alb) levels were determined using randox kits. The kidney histology was done using haemotoxylin-eosin stain. Results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with statistical significance taken at P<.05.
Results: Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, cardenoloides, anthraquinones, tannins and flavonoids. GC/MS showed the presence of twenty-two active compounds in MEPN. G6PDH, and CAT significantly increased in the diabetic treated with MEPN and metformin compared with normal control. G6PDH, CAT, GPx and Alb levels were significantly increased in diabetic treated with MEPN and metformin groups compared with diabetic untreated. SOD was significantly increased in diabetic treated with 100 mg/kg MEPN compared with normal control. LDH was significantly increased in diabetic treated with metformin compared with diabetic untreated. BUN and CRT significantly decreased in diabetic treated with MEPN and metformin groups when compared with diabetic untreated.
Conclusion: MEPN possesses active components which may be useful in ameliorating the oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in diabetes mellitus.