Cerebral Cortical Damage in Adult Wistar Rats Following Aluminium Chloride Administration

Main Article Content

A. J. Ajibade
P. B. Fakunle
O. O. Omoola

Abstract

This study investigated some effects of aluminium chloride on the cerebral cortex of adult Wistar rats. Aluminium chloride as one of the toxic metals has been known to be one of the major environmental pollutants across the world which has been reported in relation to Neurodegenerative diseases (ND) associated with metallic intoxication. It is present in many pharmaceutical drugs, food products and also used in the treatment of domestic water being involved in skeletal, haematological and neurological diseases.


Thirty-two adult Wistar of both sexes weighing between 143 g-189 g were randomly grouped into four groups, group A, B, C and D each group containing 8 rats. Group A rats which were the controls, were maintained on standard feed (grower mash) and water for 21 days. Rats in group B, C and D were treated with 0.2 g/kg, 0.4 g/kg and 0.6 g/kg of aluminium chloride respectively for 21days. The aluminium chloride solution was administered orally on a daily basis for that period.


The weight of the Wistar rats was recorded on a weekly basis (before and at the end of each week of administration). On the 22nd day the Wistar rats in group A, B, C and D were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, blood was collected through cardiac puncture, the brain was removed and weighed immediately using sensitive balance, part of the brain of all Wistar rats in each group was collected and homogenized for biochemical analysis, the remaining part was then fixed in 10% formol saline, the tissue was processed and sectioned at 5µm and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological study.


Results showed that the mean body weights of the Wistar rats significantly increased in the treated groups when compared with the control group. The mean brain weights of the aluminium- treated groups showed insignificant decreased (P>0.05) when compared to the control group. In the biochemical analysis, there was a statistically significant increase (P<0.05) in the level of Malondialdehyde (MDA) in the aluminium-treated groups, and a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the level of Superoxide dismutase (SOD), and Succinate Dehydrogenase  (SDH) in the aluminium treated group. Histological study of the brain (cerebral cortex) revealed that the cerebral cortical layers of the aluminium treated groups appeared distorted and degenerated, in a dose-dependent manner. The study concluded that aluminium chloride has a neurotoxic effect on the cerebral cortex of adult Wistar rats which invariably may alter some cerebral functions.

Keywords:
Aluminium chloride, cerebral cortex, neurodegeneration, malondialdehyde

Article Details

How to Cite
Ajibade, A. J., Fakunle, P. B., & Omoola, O. O. (2019). Cerebral Cortical Damage in Adult Wistar Rats Following Aluminium Chloride Administration. Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 7(3), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v7i330121
Section
Original Research Article

References

Martin RB. Chemistry of aluminum in the central nervous system, in Mineral and Metal Neurotoxicology (Yasui M, Strong M, Ota K, Verity MA, eds). 1997;80:75–80. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

Alfrey A, Le Gendre G, Kaehny W. The dialysis encephalopathy syndrome: Possible Aluminum Intoxication. N. Engl. J. Med. 1976;294:184–188.

Parkinson IS, Feest TG, Kerr DNS, Ward MK, Fawcett P. Fracturing dialysis osteodystrophy and dialysis encephalopathy: An Epidemiological Survey. Lancet. 1979;313:406–409.

Elliott HL, Dryburgh F, Fell GS, Sabet S, Macdougall AI. Aluminum toxicity during regular haemodialysis. Br. Med. J. 1978;1: 1101– 1103.

Gupta VB, Anitha S, Hegde ML, Zecca L, Garruto RM, Ravid R, Shankar SK, Stein R, Shanmugavelu P, Jagannatha Rao KS. Aluminium in Alzheimer’s disease: Are we still at a crossroad? Cell. Mol. Life Sci 2005;62:143–158.

Yasui M, Kihira T, Ota K. Calcium, magnesium and aluminum concentrations in Parkinson’s disease. Neurotoxicology. 1992;13:593–600.

Kurland LT. Amylotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease complex on Guam linked to an environmental neurotoxin. Trends Neurosci. 1988;5, 1151–1158.

Roskams AJ, Connor JR. Aluminum access to the brain: A role for transferrin and its receptor. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA. 1990;87:9024–9027.

Nagasawa K, Ito S, Kakuda T, Nagai K, Tamai I, Tsuji A, Fujimoto S. Transport mechanism for aluminium citrate at the blood‐brain barrier: Kinetic evidence implies involvement of system Xc− in immortalized rat brain endothelial cells. Toxicol. Lett. 2005;155:289–296.

Yokel RA, Rhineheimer SS, Sharma P, Elmore D, McNamara PJ. Entry, half‐life, and desferrioxamine‐accelerated clearance of brain aluminum after a single 26Al exposure. Toxicol. Sci. 2001;64:77– 82.

Sánchez‐Iglesias S, Soto‐Otero R, Iglesias‐González J, Barciela‐Alonso MC, Bermejo‐Barrera P, Méndez‐Álvarez E. Analysis of brain regional distribution of aluminium in rats via oral and intraperitoneal administration. J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 2007b;21:31–34.

Perl DP, Brody AR. Alzheimer’s disease: X‐ray spectrometric evidence of aluminum accumulation in neurofibrillary tangle‐bearing neurons. Science. 1980; 208:297–299.

Love S, Jenner P. Oxidative stress in neurological disease. Brain Pathol. 1999;9:55–56.

Youdim MB. Iron in the brain: Implications for Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Mt Sinai J Med. 1988;55(1):97–101.

Chevion M, Berenshtein E, Stadtman ER. Human studies related to protein oxidation: Protein carbonyl content as a marker of damage. Free Radic Res. 2000;33:99–108.

Julka D, Gill KD. Effect of aluminum on regional brain antioxidant defense status in Wistar rats. Res. Exp. Med. 1996;196: 187–194.

Segal AW. How neutrophils kill microbes. Annu Rev Immunol. 2005;23(5):197–22.

Gems D, Partridge L. Stress-response hormesis and aging: That which does not kill us makes us stronger (PDF). Cell Metab. 2008;7(3):200–3.

Schafer FQ, Buettner GR. Redox environment of the cell as viewed through the redox state of the glutathione disulfide/glutathione couple. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2001;30(11):1191–212.

Evans MD, Cooke MS. Factors contributing to the outcome of oxidative damage to nucleic acids. Bio Essays. 2004;26(5):533–42.

Patel VP, Chu CT. Nuclear transport, oxidative stress and neuro- degeneration. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2011;4(3):215–29.

Kloppel H, Fliedner A, Kordel W. Behaviour and endotoxicology of aluminium in soil and water. Review of the Scientific Literature. Chemosphere. 1997; 35:353-363.

Abbasali KM, Zhila T, Farshad N. Developmental toxicity of aluminium from high doses of AlCl3 in mice. The Journal of Applied Research. 2005;5:575-579.

Buraimoh AA, Ojo SA, Hambolu JO, Adebisi SS. Effects of oral administration of aluminium chloride on the Histology of the hippocampus of Wistar rats. Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences. 2011;3(5):509-515.

Niu Q, Yang Y, Zhang Q, Niu P, He S, Di Gioacchino M, Boscolo P. The relationship between Bcl-2 gene expression and learning & memory impairment in chronic Aluminium-exposed rats. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2007;12(3):163-169.

National Research Council. Neem: A tree for solving global problems. National Academy Press, Washington, DC; 1992.

Kankofer M. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in bovine placenta: Spectrophotometric and electrophoretic analysis. Rev. Med. Vet 2002;153:121-124.

Yokel RA. The toxicology of aluminium in the brain: a review. Neurotoxicology. 2000; 21:813–828.

Zatta P, Lucchini R, Van Rensburg SJ, Taylor A. The role of metals in neurodegenerative processes: Aluminum, manganese and zinc. Brain Res. Bull 2003;62:15–28.

Gutteridge JMC, Quinlan GJ, Clark I, Halliwell B. Aluminium salts accelerate peroxidation of membrane lipids stimulated by iron salts. Biochem. Biophys. Acta. 1985;835:441– 447.

Verstraeten SV, Oteiza PI. Effects of Al3+ and related metals on membrane phase state and hydration: correlation with lipid oxidation. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 2000; 375:340–346.

Kong S, Liochev S, Fridovich I. Aluminum (III) facilitates the oxidation of NADH by the superoxide anion. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 1992;13:79–81.

Méndez‐Álvarez E, Soto‐Otero R, Hermida‐Ameijeiras A, López‐Real AM, Labandeira‐García JL. Effects of aluminum and zinc on the oxidative stress caused by 6‐hydroxydopamine autoxidation: relevance for the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 2002;1586:155–168.

Nehru B, Anand P. Oxidative damage following chronic aluminium exposure in adult and pup rat brains. J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 2005;19:203–208.

Dua R, Gill KD. Aluminium phosphide exposure: Implications on rat brain lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defence system. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 2001;89: 315–319.

Abubakar MG, Taylor A, Ferns GA. The effects of aluminium and selenium supplementation on brain and liver antioxidant status in the rat. Afr. J. Biotech. 2004;3:88–93.

Jyoti A, Sethi P, Sharma D. Bacopa monniera prevents from aluminium neurotoxicity in the cerebral cortex of rat brain. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007;111:56– 62.

Verstraeten SV, Nogueira LV, Schreier S, Oteiza PI. Effect of trivalent metal ions on phase separation and membrane lipid packing: Role in lipid peroxidation. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1997;338(1):121–127.
DOI: 10.1006/abbi.1996.9810

Chia-Yi Y, Yih-Jing L, Guoo-Syng WH. Aluminum overload increases oxidative stress in four functional brain areas of neonatal brain. J Biomed Sci. 2012;19(1): 51.

Esparza JL, Gomez M, Rosa Nogues M, Paternain JL, Mallol J, Domingo JL. Melatonin reduces oxidative stress and increases gene expression in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of aluminum-exposed rats. J Pineal Res. 2005;39(2):129–136.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-079X.2005.00

Imene B, Omar K, Nouria H, Hadi AB, Kaddour T, Mansoria B, Abdelkader A, Mehmet O. Aluminium-induced behavioral changes and oxidative stress in developing rat brain and the possible ameliorating role of Omega-6/Omega-3 ratio. J Bio Sci. 2017;17(3):106-117.

Abdel Moneim AE. Evaluating the potential role of pomegranate peel in aluminum-induced oxidative stress and histopathological alterations in brain of female rats. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 2012;150:328–336.

Ebtesam M, Manal FE, Ahmed EA. The protective properties of melatonin against aluminium-induced neuronal injury Int J Exp Pathol. 2015;96(3):196–202.

Bhadauria M. Combined treatment of HEDTA and propolis prevents aluminum induced toxicity in rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2012;50:2487–2495.

Lipman JJ, Colowick SP, Lawrence PL, Abumard NN. Aluminium induced encephalopathy in the rat, Life Sci. 1988;42:463-875.

Gupta VB, Anitha G, Hegda ML, Zecca L, Garruto RM, Ravid R, Shankar SK, Stein R, Hanmugavelu P, Jagannatha Rao KS. Aluminium in Alzheimer’s disease: Are we still at a crossroad? Cellular Molecular Life Science. 2005;62:143-158.

Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC. Free radicals in biology and medicine, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 2rd edition; 1989.

Buraimoh AA, Ojo SA, Hambolu JO, Adebisi SS. Effects of oral administration of aluminium chloride on the Histology of the Hippocampus of Wistar Rats. Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences. 2011;3(5):509-515.
[ISSN: 2041-0778]

60Savory J MM. Herman and Ghribi O. Intracellular mechanisms underlying aluminum-induced apoptosis in rabbit brain. J. Inorg. Biochem. 2003;97:151-154.

Panda SK, Yamamoto Y, Kondo H, Matsumoto H. Mitochondrial alterations related to programmed cell death in tobacco cells under aluminium stress. C. R. Biol. 2008;331:597-610.