Main Article Content
Aim: This study sought to investigate the effect of methanolic extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaves on glycemic and lipidaemic indexes of Wistar rats.
Methods: Fresh plants of V. amygdalina were harvested from the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Ibadan. The leaves were dried and extracted using soxhlet apparatus and methanol was used as the solvent. The solvent was recovered in a rotary evaporator at 35°C with a yield of 2.24 g which represents a percentage yield of 8.96%. Ten adult male Wistar rats with body weight between 100 and 120 g were used for this study. They were randomly divided into two groups of five rats each. Animals in group 1 were administered normal saline while those in group 2 were administered V. amygdalina extract. The animals were exposed to the extract and saline solution at a dose of 3 mL per 100 g body weight 12 hourly via oral route of administration. After fourteen days of administration, the animals were fasted overnight and anaesthetized using diethyl ether. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture. Fasting blood sugar and lipid profile were determined using standard methods.
Results: V. amygdalina leaves was observed to significantly lower fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride and VLDL-cholesterol but had no significant effect on the concentrations of HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL/LDL-cholesterol ratio when compared to those of the control group at p<0.05.
Conclusion: The lowering effect of V. amygdalina leaves on fasting blood sugar indicated that it has the propensity to be antidiabetic. Its effect on total cholesterol and triglyceride showed that V. amygdalina leaves could be useful in the control of obesity and hypertension.
Bhatena SJ, Velasquez MT. Beneficial role of dietary phytoesrogens in obesity and diabetes. Am J Clin Natr. 2002;76:1191-1201.
World Health Organization (WHO). Definition, Diagnosis and classification of Diabetes Mellitus and its complication; 1999.
Subramaniam S, Fahy E, Gupta S, Sud M, Byrnes RW, Cotter D, Dinasarapu AR, Maurya MR. Chemical Reviews. 2011; 111(10):6452–6490.
Fahy E, Subramaniam S, Murphy R, Nishijima M, Raetz C, Shimizu T, Spener F, Van Meer G, Wakelam M, Dennis EA. Journal of Lipid Research. 2009; 50(Supplement):S9–S14.
Page RA, Okada S, Harwood JL. AcetylCoA carboxylase exerts strong flux control over lipid synthesis in plants. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1994;1210:369-372.
Small DM. The physical chemistry of lipids. Handbook of Lipid Research. D. J. Hanahan, Editor. Plenum Press, New York. 1986;4.
Michelle A, Hopkins J, McLaughlin CW, Johnson S, Warner MQ, LaHart D, Wright JD. Human biology and health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall; 1993.
Airaodion AI, Adejumo PR, Njoku CO, Ogbuagu, EO, Ogbuagu U. Implication of sugar intake in haemorrhoid and menstruation. International Journal of Research and Reports in Hematology. 2019;2(2):1-9.
Airaodion AI, Ogbuagu U, Ogbuagu EO, Oloruntoba AP, Agunbiade AP, Airaodion EO, Mokelu IP, Ekeh SC. Mechanisms for controlling the synthesis of lipids. International Journal of Research. 2019; 6(2):123-135.
Ojiako OA, Nwanjo HU. Is Vernonia amygdalina hepatotoxic or
hepatoprotective? Response from biochemical and toxicity studies in rats. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2006; 5(18):1648-1651.
Olufunmilayo LA, Oshiobugie MJ, Iyobosa AI. Acute toxicity and hypoglycemic properties of ethanolic root extract of Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf) in alloxan- induced diabetic rats. International Journal of Current Research. 2017;9(05): 50132-50138.
Aregheore EMK, Makkar HPS, Becker K. Feed value of some browse plants from the central zone of Delta State. Nig. Trop. Sci. 1998;38(2):97-104.
Hamowia AM, Saffaf AM. Pharmacological studies on Vernonia amygdalina (Del) and Tithonia diversifolia (Gray). Vet. Med. J. Giza. 1994;2:91-97.
Kupcham SM, Hernichway RJ, Karim A, Wermer D. Tumor inhibitors. XLVII. Vernodalin and vernomygdin, two new cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactones from Vernonia amygdalina Del. J. Org. Chem. 1969;34(12):3908-11.
Abosi AO, Raseroka BH. In vivo antimalarial activity of Vernonia amygdalina. Br. J. Biomedical Sci. 2003; 60(2):89-91.
Izevbigie EB, Bryant JL, Walker A. A novel natural inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinases and human breast cancer cell growth. Experimental Biol. Med. (Maywood). 2004;229(2):163-169.
Huffman MA. Animal self-medication and ethno-medicine: Exploration and exploitation of the medicinal properties of plants. Proceedings of the Nutr. Society. 2003;62(2):371-81.
Ijeh I, Nwugo VO, Obidoa O. Comparative studies on the nutritive Phyto-chemical and antimicrobial properties of two varieties of Vernomia amygdalina. Plant Pros. Res. Comm. 1996;1:71-75.
Iwu MM, Okunji E, Akah PA, Tempesta MS, Carley DG. Dioscoretine: The hypoglycaemic principles of Dioscorea dumentorium. Plant Med. 1996;56:119-126.
Ejoh AA, Djuikwo VN, Gouado I, Mbofung CM. Nutritional components of some non-conventional leafy vegetables consumed in Cameroon. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2007;6(6):712-717.
Okafor JC. Horticulturally promising indigenous wild plant species of the Nigerian forest zone. Acta Hort. 1983;123: 165-176.
Onwuka CFI, Akinsoyinu AO, Tewe OO. Feed value of some Nigerian browse plants: chemical composition and in vitro digestibility. East African Agriculture and Forestry J. 1989;54:157–163.
Airaodion AI, Ogbuagu EO, Ogbuagu U, Awosanya OO, Airaodion EO. Effect of methanolic extract of Corchorus olitorius leaves on hypoglycemic and hypolipidaemic activities in Wistar rats. Asian Plant Research Journal. 2019;2(4): 1-13.
Airaodion AI, Airaodion EO, Ogbuagu EO, Ogbuagu U, Osemwowa EU. Effect of oral intake of African locust bean on fasting blood sugar and lipid profile of albino rats. Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry. 2019;4(4):1-9.
Owoade AO, Adetutu A, Airaodion AI, Ogundipe OO. Toxicological assessment of the methanolic leaf extract of Bridelia ferrugelia. The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2018;7(5):419-424.
Owoade AO, Airaodion AI, Adetutu A, Akinyomi OD. Levofloxacin-induced dyslipidemia in male albino rats. Asian Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2018;4(5):620-629.
Bahadoran Z, Golzarand M, Mirmiran P, Saadati N, Azizi F. The association of dietary phytochemical index and cardio-metabolic risk factors inadults: Tehran lipid and glucose study. Journal of Human Nutrition and Diet. In Print; 2013.
Airaodion AI, Olatoyinbo PO, Ogbuagu U, Ogbuagu EO, Akinmolayan JD, Adekale OA, Awosanya OO, Oloruntoba AP, Agunbiade AP, Airaodion EO, Adeniji AR, Obajimi OO. Comparative assessment of phytochemical content and antioxidant potential of Azadirachta indica and Parquetina nigrescens leaves. Asian Plant Research Journal. 2019;2(3):1-14.
Airaodion AI, Ibrahim AH, Ogbuagu U, Ogbuagu EO, Awosanya OO, Akinmolayan JD, Njoku OC, Obajimi OO, Adeniji AR, Adekale OA. Evaluation of phytochemical content and antioxidant potential of Ocimum gratissimum and Telfairia occidentalis leaves. Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2019;7(1):1-11.
Prince P, Stanely M, Menon PV, Pari L. Hypoglycaemic activity of Syzigium cumini seeds: Effect on lipid peroxidation in alloxan diabetic rats. J. Enthopharmacol. 1998;61:1–7.
Venkateswaran S, Pari L, Saravenan G. Effect of Phaseolus vulgaris on circulatory antioxidants and lipids in streptozotocininduced diabetic rats. J. Med. Food. 2002;5:97–104.
Latha M, Pari L. Preventive effects of Cassia auriculata L. flowers on brain lipid peroxidation in rats treated with streptozotocin. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 2003; 243:23–28.
Loew S, Kaszkin M. Approaching the problem of bioequivalence of herbal medicinal products. Phytother. Res. 2002; 16:705–711.
Zhang L, Yang J, Chen X, Zan K, Wen X, Chen H, Wang Q, Lai M. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of extracts fromPotentilla discolor Bunge on diabetic rats induced by high fat diet and streptozotocin. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2010;132:518–524.
Balamurugan R, Ignacimuthu S. Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic effect of methanol extract of Lippia nodiflora L. in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Asia Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2011;S30-S36.
Chen X, Zheng Y, Shen Y, Voglibose BAO. One of the most important α- glucosidase inhibitors. Current. Medical. Chemistry. 2006;13:109-116.
Dohadwala MM, Vita JA. Grapes and cardiovascular disease. Journal of Nutrition. 2009;139(9):1788–1793.
Gresele P, Cerletti C, Guglielmini G, Pignatelli P, de Gaetano G, Violi F. Effects of resveratrol and other wine polyphenols on vascular function: An update. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 2011;22(3):201–211.
Loci AS, Shaabha M, Khazraji AL, Husain A, Twaija A. Hypoglycemic effect of a valuable extract on some blood parameters in diabetic animals. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1994;43:167–171.
Ahardh CD, Bjorgell P, Nilson EP. The effect of tolnetamide in lipoproteins and lipoprotein lipase and hormone sensitive lipase. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 1999;46: 99–108.
Frayn KN. Insulin resistance and lipid metabolism. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 1993;4: 197–204.
Bopanna KN, Kannan J, Suchma G, Balaraman R, Ranthod SP. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effect of neem seed, kernel powder on alloxan diabetic rabbits. Ind. J. Pharmacol. 1997;29:162–167.
Rotimi OS, David AO, Olusola AT, Regina NU, Elizabeth AB, Oladipo A. Amoxillinand pefloxacin-induced cholesterogenesis and phospholipidosis in rat tissues. Lipids in Health and Disease. 2015;14:13-30.
Bhattaram VA, Cercefe M, Cohlest C, Vest M, Deundo FH. Pharmacokinetics bioavailability herbal medicinal products. Phytomedicine. 2002;9:1–36.
Airaodion AI, Ogbuagu U, Ogbuagu EO, Airaodion EO, Agunbiade AP, Oloruntoba AP, Mokelu IP, Ekeh SC. Investigation of aqueous extract of Zingiber officinale root potential in the prevention of peptic ulcer in albino rats. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science. 2019;4(2):64-67.
Airaodion AI, Obajimi OO, Ezebuiro CN, Ogbuagu U, Agunbiade AP, Oloruntoba AP, Akinmolayan JD, Adeniji AR, Airaodion EO. Prophylactic efficacy of aqueous extract of Curcuma longa against indomethacin-induced ulcer. International Journal of Research. 2019; 6(1):87-91.
Airaodion AI, Olayeri IM, Ewa AO, Ogbuagu EO, Ogbuagu U, Akinmolayan JD, Agunbiade AP, Oloruntoba AP, Airaodion EO, Adeniji AR, Obajimi OO, Awosanya OO. Evaluation of Moringa oleifera leaf potential in the prevention of peptic ulcer in wistar rats. International Journal of Research. 2019;6(2):579- 584.
Saravanan R, Pari L. Antihyperlipidemic and antiperoxidative effect of diasulin, a polyherbal formulation in alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats. BMC Complement. Alternative Med. 2005;5:14–34.
Airaodion AI, Adekale OA, Airaodion EO, Ogbuagu EO, Uloaku Ogbuagu U, Osemwowa EU. Efficacy of Combined crude Extract of Curcuma longa and Moringa oleifera in the Prevention of Peptic Ulcer in Albino Rats. Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2019;7(2):1-9.
Shoback DG, Gardner D, Eds. "Chapter 17". Greenspan's Basic & Clinical Endocrinology (9th Ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical; 2011.
Saliu JA, Oboh G, Schetinger MR, Stefanello N, Rocha JBT. Antidiabetic potentials of jute leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) on type-2 diabetic rats. Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS). 2015; 6(7):223- 230.
Srinivasan K, Viswanad B, Asrat L, Kaul CL, Ramarao P. Combination of high-fat diet-fed and low-dose streptozotocin-treated rat: A model for type 2 diabetes and pharmacological screening. Pharmacological Research. 2005;52:313–320.
Allen RR, Carson LA, Kwik-Uribe C, Evans E, Erdman JW. Daily consumption of a dark chocolate containing flavanols and added sterol esters affects cardiovascular risk factors in normotensive population with elevated cholesterol. J Nutr. 2008;138: 725-731.
Greene CM, Zern TL, Wood RJ, Shrestha S, Fernandez ML. Maintenance of the LDL-cholesterol/ HDL-cholesterol ratio in an elderly population given a dietary cholesterol challenge. J Nutr. 2005;135: 2793-2798.
Perona JS, Covas MI, Fito M, Cabello-Moruno R, Aros F, Corella D, Ros E, Garcia M, Estruch R, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Ruiz-Gutierrez V. Reduction in systemic and VLDL triacylglycerol concentration after a 3-month Mediterraneanstyle diet in high-cardiovascular-risk subjects. J Nutr Biochem. 2010;9:892-898.
Ogbuagu EO, Airaodion AI, Ogbuagu U, Airaodion EO. Prophylactic propensity of methanolic extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaves against acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats. Issues in Biological Sciences and Pharmaceutical Research. 2019;7(6):1-10.
Gordon DJ, Rifkind BM. High-density lipoprotein: The clinical implications of recent studies. New England Journal of Medicine. 1989;321(19):1311-1316.
Sviridiv D. Intracellular cholesterol trafficking. Histology and Histopathology. 1999;14:305-319.
Navab M, Berliner JA, Watson AD, Hama SY, Territo MC, Lusis AJ, Shih DM, Van Lenten BJ, Frank JS, Demer LL, Edwards PA, Fogelman AM. The Yin and Yang of oxidation in the development of the fatty streak. A review based on the George Lyman Duff Memorial Lecture. Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis in Vascular Biology. 1994;16:831-842.
Oram JF, Lawn RM. ABCA1: The gatekeeper for eliminating excess tissue cholesterol. Journal Lipid Research. 2001; 42:1173-1179.
Law MR. Lowering heart disease risk with cholesterol reduction: Evidence from observational studies and clinical trials. European Heart Journal. 1999;1:S3-S8.
Stein O, Stein Y. Atheroprotective mechanisms of HDL- Atherosclerosis. 1999;144:285-303.
Das DK. Cardioprotection with high density lipoproteins. Fact or friction? Circulation Research. 2003;92:258-260.