Protective Effects of Aqueous Extract of Carica papaya Leaf on the Liver of Streptozotocin (STZ)-Induced Diabetic Adult Wistar Rats

Main Article Content

A. J. Ajibade
P. B. Fakunle
T. J. Adetunji
B. D. Kehinde


Carica papaya Linn. (Family: Caricaceae) is a perennial, herbaceous plant used traditionally among the Yoruba tribe of Nigeria for the treatment of various human and veterinary diseases including malaria, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, Jaundice, intestinal helminthiasis. Therefore, this study was designed to assess some of the effects of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaf on the liver of Streptozotocin(STZ)-induced diabetic adult wistar rats.

Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg STZ freshly dissolved in 0.1M Sodium Citrate at PH buffer at 4.5. Hyperglycemia was confirmed four days after injection by measuring the tail vein blood glucose level with an Accu-Check Sensor Comfort Glucometer (Roche, Mexico City). Only the animals with fasting blood glucose levels <200 mg/dl were considered diabetic. A total number of 48 adult wistar rats weighing between 100 -250 g of both sexes were used for this study. The rats were acclimatized to the experimental room having temperature of 25°C. Four groups were used for this study, group A served as the control which were fed with feeds and water ad libitum daily for six weeks and group B,C &D  were induced with 60 mg/kg of STZ after which were diagnosed of diabetes after 4 days of induction. Group B served as the diabetic control group and were fed with only feed and water ad libitum daily for six weeks whereas, group C and D were treated with different doses of C. papaya extract (1.5 and 3.0 mg/100 mL) as drinking water daily for six week and were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and the liver was removed and weighed before fixing in 10% formol saline for histological procedures.

The result showed a significant decrease in body weight of diabetic -induced rats (P<0.05) while the body weights  increased significantly (P<0.05) in diabetic induced rats treated  with 1.5 and 3.0 g/100 mL of the aqueous extract of C. Papaya leaves when the initial and final weights of the rats were compared at the end of treatment. However, the liver weights increased significantly (P<0.05) in diabetic induced rats when compared with the diabetic rats treated with extract. The aqueous extract of C. papaya (1.5 and 3.0 g/100 mL) significantly decreased (P<0.05) blood glucose levels in diabetic treated rats. There was significant increase in serum biomarker enzymes: ALT, AST and ALP in diabetic rats (Group B) at P<0.05 when compared with control rats (Group A). Conversely, biomarker hepatic enzymes: ALT, AST and ALP decreased significantly (P<0.05) in diabetic rats treated with 1.5 and 3.0 g/100 mL aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves when compared with both Group A and Group B. The histological section of the liver of diabetic rats treated with 3.0 g/100 mL aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves showed improvement in hepatic histo-architecture as the extract ameliorated hepatic morphological disruption occasioned by induced diabetes in wistar rats.

This study concluded that aqueous extract of C. papaya leaf ameliorated hepatic induced damage in the liver of Streptozotocin(STZ)-induced diabetic adult wistar rats.

Aqueous extract, Carica papaya leaf, diabetes, STZ, glucose level, ameliorates liver.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ajibade, A. J., Fakunle, P. B., Adetunji, T. J., & Kehinde, B. D. (2019). Protective Effects of Aqueous Extract of Carica papaya Leaf on the Liver of Streptozotocin (STZ)-Induced Diabetic Adult Wistar Rats. Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 7(4), 1-12.
Original Research Article


Rother KI. Diabetes treatment bridging the divide. The new England Journal of Medicine. 2007;356(15):1499-501.

Piero MN. Hypoglycemic effects of some Kenyan plants traditionally used in management of diabetes mellitus in eastern province. Msc thesis, Kenyatta University; 2006.

World Health Organization. Department of Non communicable Disease Surveillance. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Geneva; 1999.

Votey SR, Peters AL. Diabetes mellitus type 2. A review; 2004.

Andreoli TE, Carpenter CC, Plum F, Smith LH. Diabetes mellitus. In: Cecil essential of medicine, J. Dyson, (Ed.) 2nd Edn. WB Saunders, Philadelphia. 1990;1:496-505.

Duke JA, Borderline herbs. CRC Press. Boca raton, Florida, USA; 1984.

Gill LS. Carica papaya L. In: Ethnomedicinal uses of plants in Nigeria. Benin City: UNIBEN Press. 1992;57-58.
[ISBN: 978-2027-20-0]

Ogunyemi CM, Elujoba AA, Durosinmi MA. Anti- sickling properties of Carica papaya Linn. Journal of natural products. 2008;1: 56-66.

Dawson E. The medical properties of the papaya, carica papaya L; 1997.
Available:http|| / ebil

Nathan DM, Cleary PA, Backlund JY, Genuth SM, Lachin JM, Orchard TJ, Raskin P, Zinman B. Diabetes control and complications trial/epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications (DCCT/EDIC) study research group "intensive diabetes treatment and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 1 diabetes". The New England Journal of Medicine. 2002;353(25):2643–53.

WHO. Expert Committee on Diabetes Technical Report Series, World Health Organization Geneva; 2009.

Aguwa N. Therapeutic basis of clinical pharmacy in the Tropic published by Snaop press (Nig) Ltd Enugu, Nigeria 1998;120-122.

World Health Organization. Department of Non-communicable Disease Surveillance. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications Geneva; 1999.

Patrick JL, Sue M, Penckofer RN, Ray EC. Recent advances in understanding depression in adults with diabetes. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2008;10(6):495–502.

Rotella F, Mannucci E. Depression as a risk factor for diabetes: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. J Clin Psychiatry. 2013;74(1):31-7.
DOI: 10.4088/JCP.12r07922

National Research Council. Neem: A tree for solving global problems. National Academy Press, Washington, DC; 1992.

Carleton H. Carleton histology technique. Oxford university press, 4th Edition: Changes in rats exposed to lead. Alcoho. 1967;120:9-17.

Bergmeyer HU, Scheibe P, Wahlefeld WW. Optimization of methods for aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase Clin. Chem. 1978;24(1):58-73.

Schlebusch H, Rick N, Lang H, Knedel M. Normalbereiche der activitäten klinish wichtiger enzyme. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift. 1974;99:765–766.

Punithavathi VR, Anuthama R, Prince PS. Combined treatment with naringin and vitamin C ameliorates streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male Wistar rats. J. Appl. Toxicol. 2008;28(6): 806-13.

Fadillioglu E, Kurcer Z, Parlakpinar H, Iraz M, Gursul C. Melatonin treatment against remote open injury induced by renal ischemia reperfusion injury in diabetes mellitus. Arch. Pharm. Res. 2008;31(6): 705-12.

Gu D, Arnush M, Sarvetnic N. Endocrine/ exocrine intermediate cells in Streptozotocin treated Ins-IFNgamma transgenic mice. Pancreas. 1997;15(3): 246-50.

Piyachaturawat P, Poprasit J, Glinsukon T, Warichanon C. Gastric mucosal lesions in Streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Cell. Biol. Intern. Rep. 1988;12(1):53-63.

Kim JD, Kang SM, Seo BI, Choi HY, Choi HS, Ku SK. Anti-diabetic activity of SMK001, a poly herbal formula in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: Therapeutic study. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2006; 29(3):477-82.

Habibuddin M, Daghriri HA, Humaira T, Al-Qahtani MS, Hefzi AA. Antidiabetic effect of alcoholic extract of Caralluma sinaica L. on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rabbits. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2008;117(2):215-20.

Lee SI, Kim JS, Oh SH, Park KY, Lee HG, Kim SD. Antihyperglycemic effect of Fomitopsis pinicola extracts in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J. Med. Food. 2008;11(3):518-24.

Okolie UV, Okeke CE, Oli JM, Ehiemere IO. Hypoglycemic indices of Vernonia amygdalina on post prandial blood glucose concentration of healthy humans. Afri .J.Biotechnol. 2008;7:4581-4585.

Adebanjo AC, Ayoola OF, Iwalewa EO, Akindahunsi AA, Omisore ND, Adewummi CO, Adenowo TK. Anti–trichomonal, biochemical and toxicological activities of methanolic extract and some carbazole alkaloids isolated from the leaves of Murraya Koeniyi growing in Nigeria, Phytomedicine, B. 2006;13:246-254.

Okeke EC. The use and chemical content of some indigenous Nigeria spicies. J. Herbs Spices Med. Plants. 1998;5(4):51–63.

Zafar M, Naeem-Ul-Hassan Naqvi S. Effects of STZ-Induced diabetes on the relative weights of kidney, liver and pancreas in albino rats: a comparative study. Int. J. Morphol. 2010;28(1):135-142.

Junod A, Lambert AE, Stauffacher W, Renold AE. Diabetogenic action of streptozotocin: Relationship of dose to metabolic response. J Clin Invest. 1969;48: 2129–2139.

Zafar S, Ah M, Naeem-ul-Hassan NM, Kaim Khani ZA. Altered liver morphology and enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Int. J. Morphol. 2009; 27(3):719-25.

Juárez-Rojop IE, Díaz-Zagoya JC, Ble-Castillo JL, Miranda-Osorio PH, Castell-Rodríguez AE, Tovilla-Zárate CA, Rodríguez-Hernández A, Aguilar-Mariscal H, Ramón-Frías T, Bermúdez-Ocaña DY. Hypoglycemic effect of Carica papaya leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2012;12:236.

Merzouk H, Madani S, Chabane Sari D, Prost J, Bouchenak M, Belleville J. Time course of changes in serum glucose, insulin, lipids and tissue lipase activities in macrosomic offspring of rats with Streptozotocin induced diabetes. Clin. Sci. (Lond). 2000;98(1):21-30.

Ohno T, Horio F, Tanaka S, Terada M, Namikawa T, Kitch J. Fatty liver and hyperlipidemia in IDDM (insulin dependent diabetes mellitus) of Streptozotocin treated shrews. Life Sci. 2000;66(2):125-31.

Gepts W, Lecompte PM. The pancreatic islets in diabetes. Am J Med. 1981;70:105–115.

Shen Y, Fukushima M, Ito Y, Murak E, Hosono T, Seki T, Ariga T. Verification of the antidiabetic effects of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) using insulin uncontrolled type 1 diabetic rats and cultured adipocytes. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010;74:2418–2425.

Gupta R, Sharma AK, Sharma MC, Gupta RS. Antioxidant activity and protection of pancreatic β-cells by Embelin in strepto-zotocin-induced diabetes. J Diabetes. 2012;4:248–256.

Akintola AO, Adedosu OT, Kehinde BD, Ibikunle GJ. Ameliorative: Effects of methanolic extract of sennaalata leaves on streptozotocin (Stz)-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in adult wistar albino rats. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2013;4:438.