Influence of ABO and Rhesus Blood Group on Blood Pressure and Hypertension in Bayelsa State

Main Article Content

S. O. Ojeka
D. V. Dapper
A. M. Egbejimi


Aim: This present study was carried out to ascertain the influences of ABO and Rhesus blood groups on blood pressure and hypertension among normotensive and hypertensive patients attending cardiologic clinic in Niger delta University Teaching Hospital, Okolobiri in Yenagoa Local Government Area of Bayelsa State Nigeria.

Study Design: Cross sectional study design was adopted.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Cardiology Clinics in the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital (NDUTH), Okolobiri, Bayelsa State, from February 2020 to November 2020.

Methodology: This study was carried out on 800 participants, consisting of 400 each of apparently healthy Normotensive and Hypertensive individuals. The blood pressures were determined using palpatory and auscultatory (stethoscope and sphygmomanometer) method in both control and hypertensive groups and their ABO and Rhesus blood groups were determined using the slide haemagglutination technique. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS statistical software to perform Chi-square test.

Results: The frequency of the various blood groups was A-20.0%, B-16.8%, AB-13.3% and O-50.0% for the normotensive individuals and A-12.0%, B-15.5%, AB-17.8% and O-54.8%, for the hypertensive individuals. The frequency of ABO blood groups in both the normotensive and hypertensive group was therefore found to be O>B>A>AB. The prevalence of blood group O and rhesus O-ve was found to be  associated with elevated blood pressure and the development of hypertension while prevalence of blood group AB was found to be lowest in the same group, but was not significant statistically (p>0.05). There was no significant difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure of different blood groups.

Conclusion: Blood group O was found to be the most common blood group in our study. Blood group O- was also found to be more prone to hypertension. However, there was no statistically significant association between ABO blood groups and Hypertension.

Hypertension, ABO blood group, Rh blood group, antigens and blood pressure.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ojeka, S. O., Dapper, D. V., & Egbejimi, A. M. (2021). Influence of ABO and Rhesus Blood Group on Blood Pressure and Hypertension in Bayelsa State. Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 10(1), 33-40.
Original Research Article


Lawes CM, Hoorn SV, Rodgers A. Global burden of blood pressure related disease. Lancet. 2008;37:115-138.

Castelli WP. Epidemiology of coronary heart disease. The Framingham Study. Am. J. Med. 1984;76:4-12.

Daniels, G. Human blood groups. Blackwell Science, 2nd edition. Oxford; 2002.

Bhuvnesh Y, Anupuma R, Tasaduk A, Dogra TD. Serological polymorphisms of ABO and Rh(D) blood groups among saraswat brahmin inhabiting four States of North India. Anthropologist. 2011;13(1):17-20.

Seeley RR, Stephens TD, Tate P. Anatomy and Physiology. 4th edition. The McGraw Hill Companies, Inc. USA; 1998.

Yamamoto F, Emili C, Miyako Y, Antoine B. ABO research in the modern era of genomics. Transfusion Medicine Review. 2012;26(2).

Shivayogappa ST, Divya R, Paramasivam L, Senthil VM. Association of ABO and Rh blood groups with blood pressure: A cross sectional study in South Indian population. Indian Journal of Basic and Applied Medical Research. 2016;5:8-13.

Qi L, Cornelis MC, Kraft P, Jensen M, van Dam RM. Genetic variants in ABO blood group region, plasma soluble E-selectin levels and risk of type 2 diabetes. Human Molecular Genetics. 2010;19:1856-1862.

Xie J, Qureshi AA, Li Y, Han J ABO blood group and incidence of skin cancer. PLoS One. 2010;5:11972.

Saladin K. Anatomy and Physiology: The unity of form and function, Third Edition. The McGraw−Hill Companies, USA; 2003.

Adeyemi AS, Bello-Ajao HT. Prevalence of Rhesus D-negative blood type and the challenges of Rhesus D immunoprophylaxis among obstetric population in Ogbomosho, South-western Nigeria. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health. 2016;6(9):12-5.

Bakare A. A., Azeez M. A., Agbolade, J. O. Gene frequencies of ABO and rhesus blood groups and haemoglobin variants in Ogbomosho, South-West Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2006;5:224-229.

Franchini M, Capra F, Targher G, Montagnana M, Lippi G. Relationship between ABO blood group and von Willebrand factor levels: from biology to clinical implications. Thromb J. 2007;5:1-5.

Franchini M, Favaloro EJ, Targher G, Lippi G. ABO blood group, hypercoagulability, and cardiovascular and cancer risk. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 2012;49:137–49.

Naing L, Winn T, Rusli BN. Practical issues in calculating the sample size for prevalence studies. Medical Statistics Archives of Orofacial Sciences. 2006;1:9-14

Eziuzo CI, Chinko BC, Dapper DV. Comparative assessment of some white blood cell and platelet parameters among normotensive and hypertensive subjects in Port Harcourt. Nigeria. Niger Med J. 2017;58:131-137.

Lin GY, Du XL, Shan JJ, Zhang YN, Zhang YQ, Wang QH. MNS, Duffy and Kell blood groups among the Uygur population of Xinjiang, China. Genetics and Molecular Research. 2017;16(1):1601-9176.

Kotila TR, Odukogbe AA, Okunola MA, Olayemi O, Obisesan KA. The pregnant Rhesus negative Nigerian women. Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal. 2005;12:305-307

Okeke TC, Ocheni S, Nwagha UI, Ibegbulam OG. The prevalence of Rhesus negativity among pregnant women in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice. 2012;15:400-402.

Ekanem US, Opara DC, Akwaowo CD. High blood pressure in a semi-urban community in south-south Nigeria: A community-based study. African health sciences. 2013;13(1):56–61.

Chima OK, Mohammed TB, Aisha KG, Alhaji SA, Muhammad BM, Kwaru AH. ABO and rhesus blood groups among blood donors in Kano, North Western Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Basic Clinical Science. 2012;9:11-33.

Enosolease ME, Bazuaye GN. Distribution of ABO and Rh-D blood groups in the Benin area of Niger-Delta: Implication for regional blood transfusion. Asian Journal of Transfusion Science. 2008;2(1) 3-5.

Adeyemo OA, Soboyejo OB. Frequency distribution of ABO, RH blood groups and blood genotypes among the cell biology and genetics students of University of Lagos, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2006;5(22):2062-2065.

Akinnuga AM, Bamidele O, Amosu AM, Ugwah GU. Distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups among major ethnic groups of medical students of Madonna University Teaching Hospital, Elele, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2011;3(3):106-109

Mitra R, Mishra N, Rath GP. Blood groups systems. Indian journal of anaesthesia. 2014;58(5):524–528.

Cooling L. Blood Groups in Infection and Host Susceptibility. Clinical Microbiology Reviews.2015;28(3):801-870.

Dean L. Blood group and red cell antigen; 2005.

Available: 2005; NBK2261.pdf

Eweidah, M., Rahiman, S., Ali, H., Al-Shamary. A. Distribution of ABO and Rhesus (RHD) blood groups in Al-Jouf Province of the Saudi Arabia. Anthropologist. 2011;13(2):99-102.

Christian SG, Eze EM, Briggs SK. Haemoglobin Genotype, ABO and Rhesus Blood Group Distribution in Briggs Family of Abonnema, Rivers State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Medicine and Health. 2018;13(2):1-8.

Jeremiah ZA. Abnormal haemoglobin variants, ABO and Rh blood groups among student of African descent in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. African health sciences. 2006;6(3):177–181.

Srivastava R and Upadhyay A.Relation of ABO blood group with blood pressure in 25 – 35 years of age group in normal population of Agra. Indian Journal of Clinical Anatomy and Physiology. 2019;6(1):5-9.

Iyiola OA, Igunnugbemi OO, Raheem UA, Anifowoshe AT. Gene frequencies of ABO and Rh (D) blood group alleles in Ilorin, North-Central Nigeria. World Journal of Biological Research. 2011;004:1.

Sachdev B. Prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors among Nomad Tribe groups. Antrocom Online J Anthr. 2011;7(2):1973–2880.

Chandra T, Gupta A. Association and distribution of hypertension, obesity and ABO blood groups in blood donors. Iranian J Ped Haematol Oncol. 2012;2:140–145.

Bhattacharyya S, Ganaraja B, Ramesh BM. Correlation between the blood groups, BMI and prehypertension among medical students. J Chin Clin Med. 2010;51:78– 82.

Nasreen AR. Blood groups and hypertension. J Baghdad Coll Dent. 2006;18:68–70.

Kaur M. Association between ABO blood group and hypertension among post-menopausal females of North India. Anthropologist. 2014;17:677–80.

Chuemere AN, Olorunfemi OJ, Nwogu JU, Mmom OF, Agbai EO, Vurey VV. Correlation between Blood group, Hypertension, Obesity, Diabetes, and combination of Prehypertension and Pre-Diabetes in School Aged Children and Adolescents in Port Harcourt. IOSR J Dent Med Sci. 2015;1(14):83–89

Kondam A, Chandrashekar M, Suresh M, Madhuri BA. A study of incidence of hypertension in ABO and rhesus blood group system. Int J Biol Med Res. 2012;3(1):1426–1429.

Kaur M, Gill K, Bassi R, Kaur D. Association of ABO and Rh blood groups with Hypertension. Pak J Physiol. 2016;12:11-14.

Nemesure B, Wu SY, Hennis A, Leske MC. Barbados Eye Study Group Hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and blood groups in a population of African ancestry. Ethn Dis. 2006;16:822–9.

Gogoi HS, Bora B. Prevalence of ABO and Rh positive blood groups among the hypertensive male and female population in greater Guwahati. Asian J Sci Tech. 2016;7:263-541.