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Aim: This study comparatively evaluates nosocomial infections in two major hospitals in Calabar metropolis, Cross River State.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in two major hospitals which were General Hospital (GH) and Infectious Disease Hospital (IDH) located in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. The study lasted for 2 months from samples collection to report writing.
Methodology: Bacteria and fungi were isolated using settle plate technique and isolates were subjected to antibiotics sensitivity, minimum and bactericidal concentration tests. Resulting data were analysed using simple descriptive statistics and student t –test.
Results: A total mean load of 1,002 cfu/m2/hr was recorded of which 612.1cfu/m2/hr was recorded in General hospital and 389.9 cfu/m2/hr was recorded in Infectious Disease Hospital (IDH). Although the wards of both hospitals did not recorded the highest loads, they showed the highest microbial diversities of 23(23.2%) and 19 (21.6%) for GH and IDH, respectively. Salmonella species and Escherichia coli from GH showed resistance to taravid, nalidixic acid, reflacine and ciproflox. E. coli, Salmonella, Klebsiella, Proteus species and P. aeruginosa exhibited a wide range of resistance against tarivid, reflacine, ciproflox, ceporex, nalidixic acid and also moderately to amplicin. Penicillium and Aspergillus species from both hospitals showed higher resistance to ketoconazole than nystatin. Comparism of the mean loads in both hospital showed significance (p = 0.01). In IDH, S. aureus recorded MICs and MBCs of 1:32 and 1:16, respectively while for Streptococci species it was 1:16-1:64 and 1:8-1:32, respectively. However, in GH, E. coli and Streptococci recorded MICs and MBCs in the range of 1:32-1:512 and 1:16-256, respectively.
Conclusion: The test isolates when subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing exhibited varied patterns of resistance to antibiotics/antifungal agents. This calls for effective monitoring of the air quality in healthcare settings in a bid to reducing nosocomial infections.