Review of the Epilepsy, Including Its Causes, Symptoms, Biomarkers, and Management

Yash Srivastav *

Department of Pharmacy, Goel Institute of Pharmacy & Sciences (GIPS), Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Akhandnath Prajapati

Department of Pharmacy, Goel Institute of Pharmacy & Sciences (GIPS), Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Prachi Agrahari

Department of Pharmacy, Rameshwaram Institute of Technology and Management (RITM), Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Madhaw Kumar

Department of Pharmacy, Goel Institute of Pharmacy & Sciences (GIPS), Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Epilepsy is a long-term medical disorder that frequently causes unpredictable, unprovoked repeated seizures that have an impact on both physical and mental abilities. It is among the most prevalent neurological conditions. Greek term epilambanein, which is the root of the English word epilepsy, means "to be seized." Both the sickness and the one-time attack were meant by this. The word refers to the magical beliefs of the time, which led to the stigma associated with epilepsy because people with epilepsy were seen to be dirty or bad. A recent study found that nearly 90% of the 70 million epileptics worldwide live in developing countries. Genetic testing has expanded the possibility of figuring out the aetiology of different types of epilepsies. It needs some prior clinical application knowledge to complete this challenging endeavour. Genetic testing techniques include chromosome microarray analysis, karyotyping, single-gene testing, gene panel testing, whole exome sequencing, and whole genome sequencing. The allegedly first documented account of epilepsy, as it was then perceived and understood, may be found in one of the earliest Babylonian medical manuals, Sakikku (English translation: "All Diseases"), which dates from around 1050 BC. The pathogenesis, aetiology, treatment, biomarkers, and risk factors for epilepsy are reviewed in this review article.

Keywords: Epilepsy, history, causes, symptoms and signs, risk factors, pathophysiology, biomarkers and treatments

How to Cite

Srivastav , Y., Prajapati , A., Agrahari , P., & Kumar , M. (2023). Review of the Epilepsy, Including Its Causes, Symptoms, Biomarkers, and Management. Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 12(4), 64–84.


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