Birth Weight and Third-trimester Maternal Vitamins A, C, and E Levels

Gregory Uchechukwu Joseph

Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria and Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Adeleke University, Ede, Nigeria.

Oyewale Thomas Oyediran

Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.

Rashidat Abidemi Oladiti

Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria and Department of Biochemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Ayobola Abolape Iyanda *

Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Background: Deficiencies of micronutrients (especially vitamins C, A, and E) during intra-uterine life have been linked with the possibility of increased risk of some diseases (e.g. cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes) in adulthood.

Aims: Therefore, it becomes expedient that persistent and vigorous attention be paid to maternal vitamin status during gestation.

Methodology: This is a cross-sectional comparative study carried out at maternity centres in Osogbo Local Government. Forty women who were at least 29 weeks of gestation and 40 apparently healthy women, age-matched, non-pregnant constituted the test and control groups respectively. Blood was obtained through an ante-cubital vein, centrifuged and used for vitamin estimations (High-Performance Liquid Chromatography). Birth weight and neonatal mortality ratio were the birth outcomes that were obtained. Data analysis was by Student’s t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. P≤0.05 was considered significant.

Results: Serum status of vitamins A (2.68±3.88 µg/dL); C (0.95±0.44 mg/dL); and E (0.67±0.04 mg/dL) were significantly lower at third trimester compared with the corresponding values of 6.98±1.26 µg/dL; 2.99±0.11 mg/dL; and 1.66±0.08 mg/dL among non-pregnant control. There were significant adverse pregnancy outcomes as signified by 10% stillbirths. In addition, low birth weight (1.5-2.4 kg) was observed among approximately 50% of the babies but no correlation was observed except between vitamins C and E.

Conclusions: The results of this study revealed that among Nigerian pregnant women, there are risks of abnormal birth outcomes and low levels of vitamin A, C, and E. Aside depletions in vitamin C and E, the results of the study (r= .376; p= .020) suggest possible metabolic interaction between both.

Keywords: Ascorbic acid, vitamin E, vitamin A, gepstation

How to Cite

Joseph , Gregory Uchechukwu, Oyewale Thomas Oyediran, Rashidat Abidemi Oladiti, and Ayobola Abolape Iyanda. 2024. “Birth Weight and Third-Trimester Maternal Vitamins A, C, and E Levels”. Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences 13 (1):1-8.


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