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Background: In Egypt, risk assessment of pesticides usage and pesticides misuse to protect plants and increase productivity connected with health hazards and pollution problems have been of public interest. Around the world three million acute poisoning cases from pesticide exposure annually report.
Aim of study was to investigate the histopathological alterations, biochemical and genotoxicity adverse effects of synthetic insecticides Diazinon (organophosphorus) and alpha cypermethrin (pyrethroid) which are using for agricultural and public health applications on male albino rats.
Methods: Twenty one albino rats were detached into control and two experimental groups. The experimental groups were treated with Diazinon (DIZ) and Alpha-cypermethrin (α-CYP) at sub-lethal dose (1/10 LD50 36.51 and 1.4 mg/kg body weight, respectively) by oral treatment for consecutively 28-days. The male albino rats in control treatment were put in similar surrounding conditions and treated with 5 ml /Kg tap water. Albino rats were killed after completing exposure of 28-days, liver and brain samples were dissected out for processing and sectioning examinations.
Results: The obtained results revealed that both tested insecticides induced oxidative damage as appearance by a significant raise in malondialdehyde (MDA) indicating lipid peroxidation and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage indicating genotoxicity in the liver and brain. Besides, increase in GSH level and decline in enzymatic antioxidants (GST, CAT, SOD) activities were observed in liver. Marked increase was noticed in GSH levels and GST activity in brain whereas CAT and SOD antioxidant enzymes activity were significantly reduced. Histopathological studies in brain and liver revealed multiplied focal hepatic necrosis, hydropic degeneration of the hepatocytes and portal infiltration inflammatory cells in the liver. Necrosis of neurons, neuronophagia, focal gliosis and cellular oedema, congestion of cerebral blood vessel were noticed in the brain of exposed rats.
Conclusion: The histopathological examination of brain and liver tissues and oxidative damage biomarkers showed adverse effects of DIZ or α-CYP insecticides at the tested dose (1/10 LD50).