Pattern of Some Sperm Proteins, Anti-oxidants, Testosterone, and Prostate-Specific Antigen of Infertile Males with Sperm Cell Deformities in Port Harcourt, Rivers State
Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Aim: Infertility is a global problem affecting both males and females. It is a condition with psychological, economic, and medical implications resulting in trauma and stress, particularly in a society where there is a strong emphasis on childbearing. The study therefore aims to investigate the pattern of some sperm proteins, anti-oxidants, and prostate-specific antigen in the seminal plasma of infertile males with sperm cell deformities.
Study Design: The study is a case-control study designed to investigate semen parameters and sperm proteins in infertile males with sperm cell deformities in Port Harcourt, Rivers State.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt between the periods of September 2019 and Feb. 2022. However, some of the Laboratory investigations were done in the Chemical Pathology Unit and Medical Microbiology Unit of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt. The Study was between the periods of September 2019 and Feb. 2022.
Methodology: A total of 193 male subjects participated in the study. These subjects were grouped into normospermic males (100), azoospermic (40) and oligospermic males (53). Based on their sperm cell morphology and active motility, they were further classified into asthenozoospermic (40), oligoasthenozoospermic (48), teratozoospermic (26), asthenoteratozoospermic (32), and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (22). HSP70, PKA, MDA, TAC, and GPX (in seminal plasma), PSA, and testosterone (in serum) were analyzed using ELISA while TAC was done using spectrophotometric methods. Results obtained were statistically analyzed using GraphPad Prism and SPSS.
Results: Sperm motility, TSC, and normal sperm morphology were poor in oligospermic subjects but were very severe in OAT subjects. HSP70 and PKA were significantly increased while OPN, TAC, and GPX were significantly decreased in the seminal plasma of infertile males with abnormal sperm cells. Testosterone and PSA in blood plasma were significantly lower and higher respectively.
Conclusion: Oxidative stress played a significant role in sperm cell deformities and fertility. OAT subjects were the most affected.
- Sperm proteins
- sperm cell deformities
- male infertility
- Port Harcourt
- Niger Delta
How to Cite
Uadia OP, Emokpae MA. Male infertility in Nigeria: A neglected reproductive health issue requiring attention. Journal of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences. 2015; 4(2):45-54.
Sharma A. Impact of age, verified occupation and lifestyle on semen parameters of infertile males in Jaipur: A preliminary study. Intern Journal of Health and Allied Sciences. 2014;3:278–283.
Singh V, Pakhiddey R. Current scenario on genetic basis of infertility – A review. Acta Medica International. 2015;2:149-154.
Nand K, Singh AK. Trends of male factor infertility, an important cause of infertility: A review of literature. Human Reproductive Science. 2015;8:191-196.
Castillo J, Estanyol MJ, Ballesca LJ, Oliva R. Human sperm chromatin epigenetic potential: Genomics, proteomics, and male infertility. Asian Journal of Andrology. 2015; 17(4):601-602.
Jodar M, Ventura SA, Oliva R. Semen proteomics and male infertility. Journal of Proteomics. 2017;162:125-134.
Charan J, Biswas T. How to calculate Sample Size for different Study Designs in Medical Research? Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine. 2013;35(2):121-126.
Sule JO, Erigbali P, Eruom L. Prevalence of Infertility in Women in a Southwestern Nigerian Community. African Journal of Biomedical Research. 2008;11:225–227.
World Health Organization. WHO Laboratory manual for the examination of human semen and semen cervical mucus interaction. 3rd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1999.
Conquer JA, Marton JB, Tummon I, Watson L, Tekpeteg J. Fatty acid analysis of blood semen, seminal plasma, and spermatozoa of normozoospemic vs asthenozoospemic males. Lipids. 1999;34:793–799.
Vasan SS. Semen Analysis and sperm function tests: Much to test? Indian Journal of Urology, 2011:27(1):41-48.
World Health Organization. WHO laboratory manual for the examination and processing of human semen. 6th edition; 2021. Available:https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240030787
Moretti E, Cerretani D, Noto D, Signorini C, Iacoponi F, Collodel G. Relationship between Semen IL-6, IL-33 and Malondialdehyde Generation in Human Seminal Plasma and Spermatozoa. Reproductive Sciences; 2021: Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/s43032-021-00493-7
Ochei J, Kolhatkar A. Endocrine function tests. In Medical Laboratory Science Theory and Practice. New Delhi: McGraw-Hill; 2000.
Engvall E, Perlmann P. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) quantitative assay of immunoglobulin G. Immunochemistry. 1971;8(9):871–874.
Moron MS, Depierre JW, Mannervik B. Levels of glutathione, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities in Rtas lungs and Liver. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1979;582(1):67-78.
Mencca E, Milardi D, Mordente A, Martorana GE, Giacchi E, De Martnis L, Marcini, A. Total antioxidant capacity in patients with varicoceles. Fertility and Sterility. 2003;3:1577–1583.
Anaezichukwuolu NM. (Male Infertility: Prevalence and Clinical Correlates amongst Couples Attending an Infertility Clinic in Central Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, National Postgraduate Medical College of Nigeria (Unpublished); 2016: Accessed 12/09/2021.
Odunvbun WO, Oziga DV, Oyeye LO, Ojeogwu CL. Pattern of infertility among infertile couple in a secondary health facility in Delta State, South South Nigeria. Tropical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2018;35:244-248.
Green KI, Nwachuku EO. Seminal Analysis as a Tool to Determine the Infertility Prevalence among Men Reported to Infertility Clinic in Port Harcourt. Asian Journal of Medicine and Health. 2018; 11(1):1-6.
Waheed MM, El-Bahr SM, Al-haider AK. Influence of Seminal Plasma Antioxidants and Osteopontin on Fertility of the Arabian horse. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science. 2013;33:705-709.
Parrish JJ. Spermatogenesis, heat stress and male infertility. 2019;167-173. Available:http://doi:9780367199302_C017.indb
Fraczek M, Wojnar L, Kamieniczna M, Piasecka M, Gill K, Kups M, et al. Seminal Plasma Analysis of Oxidative Stress in Different Genitourinary Topographical Regions Involved in Reproductive Tract Disorders Associated with Genital Heat Stress. International Journal of Molecular Science. 2020;21:6427-6434.
Cao X, Cui Y, Zhang X, Lou J, Zhou J, Bei H, Wei R. Proteomic profile of human spermatozoa in healthy and asthenozoospermic individuals. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology. 2018;16:16-23.
Agarwal A, Kumar M, Selvam P, Baskaran S. Proteomic analyses of human sperm cells: understanding the role of proteins and molecular pathways affecting male reproductive health. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020;21:1621–1628.
Colagar HA, Karimi F, Jorsaraei AGS. Correlation of Sperm Parameters with Semen lipid peroxidation and total antioxidants levels in astheno- and oligoasheno- teratospermic men. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. 2013: 15(9): 780 - 785.
Nabil H, Moemen LA, Elela MHA. Studying the levels of malondialdehyde and antioxidant parameters in normal and abnormal human seminal plasma. Australian Journal of Basic Applied Science. 2008;2(3):773-778.
Khosrowbeygi A, Zarghami N, Deldar Y. Correlation between sperm quality parameters and seminal plasma antioxidants status. Iran Journal of Reproductive Medicine. 2021;2(2):58-64.
Moghadam MT, Hamidian O, Mansouri E, Nikbakht R. Effects of vitamin D3 on the level of heat shock protein 70 and oxidative stress in human sperm: a pilot study. Middle East Fertility Society Journal. 2020;25(26). Available:https://doi.org/10.1186/s43043-020-00036-1
Blommaert D, Sergeant N, Delehedde M, Jouy N, Mitchell V, Franck T, et al. Expression, localization, and concentration of A-kinase anchor protein 4 (AKAP4) and its precursor (proAKAP4) in equine semen: Promising marker correlated to the total and progressive motility in thawed spermatozoa. Theriogenology. 2019;131:52-60.
Shang YG, Liu C, Cui D, Han G, Yi S. The effect of chronic bacterial prostatitis on semen quality in adult men: A meta-analysis of case-control. Scientific Reports. 2014;4(7233). DOI: 10.1038/Srep07233
Brown PR, Miki K, Harper D, Eddy EM. A-kinase anchoring protein 4 binding proteins in the fibrous sheath. Biology of Reproduction. 2003;68:2241-2248.
Moss SB, Turner RM, Burkert KL, Butt H, Gerton GL. Conservation and function of a bovine sperm A-kinase anchor protein homologous to mouse AKAP82. Biology of Reproduction. 1999;61:335-342.
Krisfalusi M, Miki K, Magyar PL, O'Brien DA. Multiple glycolytic enzymes are tightly bound to the fibrous sheath of mouse spermatozoa. Biology of Reproduction. 2006;75: 270-278.
Abstract View: 48 times
PDF Download: 20 times