Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Anti-stress Activity of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. Lamiaceae Aqueous Leaves Extract on Wistar Albino Rats

Krupavaram Bethala, Ragaventhiran Mohan, Shopana Paramasivam, Rama Supriya Veeralla, Anandarajagopal Kalusalingam

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/38132

Aim: The present study was aimed to determine the in-vivo anti-stress activity of Orthosiphon stamineus aqueous leaves extracts using Wistar albino rats.

Methodology: In anoxia stress tolerance test and noise induced stress test Wistar albino rats of either sex was randomly divided into five groups of four animals each. Aqueous leaves extract of Orthosiphon stamineus (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg p.o) was administered for 21 days for anoxia stress tolerance method, whereas 15 days for noise induced stress method and last day, blood was collected by retro-orbital route to estimate blood cell count and biochemical parameters (glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, BUN & ACTH) to assess the anti-stress activity in Wistar albino rats. Withania somnifera (WS) (100 mg/kg p.o) was selected as reference standard.

Results: Results are expressed as mean ± SEM and data were analysed by Student's t-test. From the results, it was found that aqueous extract of Orthosiphon stamineus has been significantly increased in blood cell count and other biochemical parameters in both anoxia stress tolerance and noise induced stress test which is almost comparable to the standard drug. Furthermore, anoxia stress tolerance is more significant in the majority of the parameters when compared to noise induced stress.

Conclusion: The results indicate that aqueous leaves extract of Orthosiphon stamineus possesses significant anti-stress activity.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Oral versus Parenteral Iron Supplements: Which is better in Postpartum Iron Deficiency Anemia?

Aneeqa Nawaz, Arifa Aslam, Qurat-Ul-Ain .

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/40206

Aims: To assess the safety and effectiveness of iron sucrose complex given intravenously versus ferrous sulphate taken orally in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in the postpartum period.

Study Design: Randomized Clinical Trial.

Place and Duration of Study: Sahiwal Medical College, Sahiwal (Pakistan) from August to November, 2017.

Methodology: We included 386 patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia in postpartum period according to our criteria and distributed them among two groups. Group-A patients received intravenous Iron Sucrose complex while Group-B patients were treated with oral iron sulfate. Hemoglobin level, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and serum ferritin were used as indicators of anemia and results obtained for reversal of anemia and frequency of adverse effects were later analyzed.

Results: Varying degree of reversal of anemia was obtained in 386 patients included in the study. Patients treated with intravenous therapy had better reversal of anemia as compared to those who received oral iron sulfate with a P-Value of 0.03, 0.08, 0.049, and 0.01 for Hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, and serum ferritin, respectively with a margin of error of 5% and within the confidence interval of 95%. Comparison of adverse effects in both groups proved safer profile of intravenous therapy with a Pearson’s Chi-square value at 0.046.

Conclusion: Intravenous iron sucrose complex has higher clinical efficacy as compared to oral iron sulfate tablets in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in postpartum women. Furthermore, intravenous iron therapy has a good safety profile with infrequent tolerable adverse effects.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Descriptive Cytological Statistics of Fine Needle Aspiration Cases of Breast Lesions- The Unique Kasr El-Aini Hospital (Cairo University Hospital) Experience

Raba M. Abdalkarim, Tarek R. S. Al Aga

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/40236

Background: This study aimed at registering the fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of breast lesion cases received by the pathology department in Kasr El-Aini Hospital (Cairo University Hospital)  in the last 3 years ( Jan 2010 – dec 2012 ). one hundred and three cases were collected.

Aims: Review of all available archival material of  FNAC of breast lesions in the last 3years (Jan 2010- Dec 2012), collected from the pathology department, faculty of medicine, Kasr El-Aini Hospital ( Cairo University Hospital). Statistical analysis to correlate between clinical and patient data available in the request sheets, in one hand, and the pathological findings of value, on the other hand. Evaluate incidence of different pathological diagnoses for patients, in Cairo University Hospital, during this period.

Study Design:  Cytological and A Retrospective Statistical.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pathology, Kasr El-Aini Hospital (Cairo University Hospital Review of all available archival material of FNAC of breast lesions in the last 3 years between Jan 2010- Dec 2012.

Methodology: Slides and data will be collected from the archives of the pathology department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University Hospital during the 3 year period between Jan 2010- Dec 2012.

Data Acquired from the Pathology Sheet Is: Age, gender of patients diagnosed to have any breast lesion (neoplastic & non-neoplastic lesions), as well as any available mammography and the final cytological diagnosis. Slides will be reviewed for the cytological features which favored such diagnosis.

The Results: In the survey of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of breast lesions in the pathology department of Kasr El-Aini Hospital (Cairo University Hospital) during the period from January 2010 till December 2012, 201 cytologically documented cases were analyzed. The age range was from 12 to 86 years, and the mean age of the sample was 42.85 years. The minimum mass size value was 0.5 cm and the maximum mass size value was 11 cm. The mean of the mass size was 3.8 cm and 199 were females, opposing 2 males.

Conclusion: This work may be put as a nidus for a nationwide registry of FNAC diagnosis of different breast lesions in different governorates, and to compare between differences in the percentages of each diagnostic category whenever encountered.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Cost Analysis of Treatment of Bacterial Opportunistic Infections in Patients Living with HIV/AIDS in Two Public Hospitals in Abuja, Nigeria

Paul Otor Onah, Siyaka Abdul Lateef, Ahmed Abdulmalik

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/40477

Background: Bacterial opportunistic infections are the most frequently encountered cause of morbidity and mortality among patients living with HIV/AIDS. There has been a dramatic reduction in mortality related to HIV/AIDS infection following the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Bacterial opportunistic infections still remain a significant cause of morbidity among patients living with the virus and treatment with antibiotics is increasingly becoming less affordable for majority of patients. The rising cost of treatment is largely caused by irrational antibiotic prescriptions, high rate of treatment failure due to resistance and use of expensive innovator brands of drugs.

Aim: The purpose of this study is to identify common bacterial opportunistic infections and compare antibiotic prescription pattern and treatment cost in two public hospitals.

Method: This was a cross-sectional retrospective study using data obtained from two year medical records of patients being treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. A sample size of 400 was used in each hospital for the study. Systematic random sampling was used and relevant data were extracted for analysis. The cost of antibiotic treatment was calculated from prices obtained from hospital and community pharmacies around the hospital vicinity.

Data Analysis: The data were entered into SPSS 20 for descriptive and inferential statistics. Analysis was done using students t-test and P values ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results and Discussion: Bacterial infections remain the most frequently encountered among patients on HAART. Antibiotic prescriptions for bacterial infections cost between one and five dollars per episode of infection. This is not affordable for majority of patients who live below the poverty line. 

Conclusion: Antibiotic therapy cost is high for majority of patients, there is need to emphasize generic prescriptions and prior microbial sensitivity testing to reduce treatment cost arising from treatment failures.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Potent Antibiotic to Treat Typhoid Fever in Patients of Pediatric Age-group

Aneeqa Nawaz, Arifa Aslam, Ghina Haq

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/41328

Aims: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of Cefixime and chloramphenicol taken orally in the treatment of typhoid fever in pediatric patients.

Study Design:  Randomized Clinical Trial.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pediatric Medicine, DHQ Teaching Hospital, Sahiwal and Sahiwal Medical College, Sahiwal (Pakistan) from May to October 2017.

Methodology: We included 60 patients diagnosed with typhoid fever confirmed by blood culture in this study and divided them into two groups. Group A received Cefixime while Group B was treated with Chloramphenicol. All patients were treated on indoor basis after admission to the ward and defervescence period was recorded in days for every patient. Non-responders were treated with alternative antibiotics in time as advised by the ethical review committee.

Results: Among group A patients, Cefixime cured 28 out of 30 patients successfully with an efficacy of 93.3%, while in Group B, chloramphenicol was successful in treating 13 out of 30 patients with a cure rate of 43.3% (P value was 0.01). Overall in this study 45 patients were treated with Cefixime, of which 43 were cured successfully (95.5%) with a P value of 0.005.

Conclusion: Cefixime is a superior choice at present times in this region of Pakistan for the treatment of typhoid fever.