Open Access Original Research Article

Target Level (Ligand/Receptor Based) Analysis of Anti-oxidant Enzymes Modulating Activity of Phytochemicals of Dillenia pentagyna

Mohammad Nadeem Khan, Hena Kaushar, Jennifer Qureshi, Nitesh Pusham

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/41129

Antioxidants play a very important role in alleviating problems related to oxidative stress. They affect beneficial metabolic and cellular processes and also play key role in pathological conditions of the body. It is normally balanced by endogenous antioxidant system like a modulating in enzymatic activity of super oxide dismutase, catalase and Glutathione peroxidase. Present study was aimed at assessing the in-silico based drug development of modulating antioxidant enzyme activity with the help of known compounds of Dillenia pentagyna. Draw and energy minimization and simulation of phytochemicals of 2D, 3D structure of Dillenia pentagyna (Eleven) were docked with that of antioxidant enzymes by PyRx (AutoDock) and Discovery studio 3.1 version. All Phytochemicals were bound with all three anti-oxidant enzymes. The results show that all phytochemical compounds possessed potential agonist characteristics that is capable of enhance the anti-oxidant enzymes activity that is first line of defense against the reactive oxygen species. Among these two compounds that code was Dillnia-5 ,6 showed better affinity towards SOD and CAT with docking score -8.4, -7.6 and -8.0,-8.0 respectively. The phytocompound code dilinia-8 highest docking scores -7.0 respectively. Therefore, we can infer that Dillnia-5 and Dillnia -6 and Dillinia-8 have direct affinity towards SOD and hence these lead molecules activate SOD and CAT, GPx enzymes. Endogenous oxidant scavenging enzymes were act as oxidative stress balancing. Further studies are needed to prove its mechanisms in vitro condition.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Assessment of Muscle Relaxation and Anesthesia Depth in Morbidly Obese Patients: Should We Determine Drug doses According to Lean Body Weight (LBW)?

Naciye Ceyda Demir, Nilgün Kavrut Ozturk, Ilkay Bayar, Bilge Karsli, Kerem Inanoğlu

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/41734

Background: To give a good planned anesthesia to a morbidly obese patient, it is better to have knowledge about morbid obesity’s interaction and impact on drug dosages. For safe drug dosing, not only increased body weight and changed body composition but also physiological changes and comorbid conditions have to be considered.

In this study, we aimed to examine the adequacy of the associated drug with the BIS and TOF monitoring for patients who are scheduled the surgical intervention due to morbid obesity in anesthesia induction.The induction of drug doses were calculated based on LBW; were compared with the calculated dose based on  IBW and TBW and were evaluated statistically.

Methods: Study was carried out at 35 patients who undergone bariatric surgery. Induction was done with thiopental, rocuronium and fentanyl according to the estimation of lean body weight (LBW). Later, whether enough muscle relaxation and anesthesia depth occurred or not at expected normal period of time, was observed with bispectral index (BIS) and train of four (TOF) monitorization.

Results: According to estimated lean body weight at morbidly obese patients, 5 mg/kg thiopental, 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium and 2 mcg/kg fentanyl found to be not enough for BIS, TOF and entubation quality at any of patients. According to LBW with 8 mg/kg thiopental, 1 mg/kg rocuronium and 2 mcg/kg fentanyl, enough depth of anesthesia and muscle relaxation and good quality of intubation were shown by evaluation of BIS and TOF.

Conclusion: At morbidly obese patients LBW can be estimated by Janmahasatian formula. After administration of 8 mg/kg thiopental, 1 mg/kg rocuronium and 2 mcg/kg fentanyl according to patients’ lean body weights that estimated with this formula; evaluation with BIS and TOF have shown that enough depth of anesthesia and muscle relaxation. When intubation quality was evaluated, it was revealed that good and perfect intubation quality.


Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Analysis of Patients’ Medicine Price in a Public Tertiary Hospital and Private Retail Community Pharmacy in a Rural Nigerian Community

Roland Nnaemeka Okoro, Chijioke Nmeka

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/41764

Background: One-third of the world’s population lacks access to essential medicines and price of medicine is considered one of the most important obstacles to access. Improving access to quality medicines and treatment is currently the most important strategy to reduce disability and death from many diseases.

Aim: The objective of this study was to compare the patient prices of medicines in a public teaching hospital and a private retail community pharmacy in a rural Nigerian community.

Methods: A cross-sectional prospective survey was conducted in a public tertiary hospital pharmacy and private retail community pharmacy in Nigeria. The price was recorded for the list of medicines commonly available in those pharmacies. A total of 30 pharmaceuticals products were selected for data collection. The price was recorded based on the hospital price list and price reported by surrogate customers that visited community pharmacy respectively. Median prices of the two groups were compared with Mann-Whitney test at 95% Confidence interval.

Results: Out of 30 pharmaceutical products selected for survey, only 19 (63.30%) matched pair were recorded. Highest price variation of 80.00% was recorded for metformin 500mg tab, whereas lowest price variation negative of 2.60% was recorded for amoxicillin+clavulanic acid 625mg tab in public pharmacy. The median price of the basket of medicines surveyed did not vary significantly between public pharmacy and private retail community pharmacy (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: The patients’ medicine prices found in the public hospital and community pharmacy were almost identical. Therefore, the Nigerian government through its ministry of health should play proactive roles to keep the patient prices of medicines much lower in the public hospitals than what is obtained in the private retail community pharmacies.


Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Assessments and Renoprotective Effects of Methanol Extract of Parquetina nigrescens (African Parquetina) in Diabetic Wistar Rats

O. I. Adeyomoye, E. O. Adewoye

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/41737

Aim: Phytochemical screening, toxicity and renoprotective effects of methanol extract of Parquetina nigrescens (MEPN) in diabetic Wistar rats were investigated.

Methods: Twenty-five rats divided into five groups (n=5) were used for this study. Groups 1 and 2 served as normal control and diabetic untreated respectively and each received 0.3 ml distilled water. Groups 3-5 served as diabetic groups treated with 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg MEPN and 100 mg/kg metformin respectively. Active compounds in MEPN were identified using GC/MS analysis while Phytochemical screening was done following standards procedures. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (CRT) and albumin (Alb) levels were determined using randox kits. The kidney histology was done using haemotoxylin-eosin stain. Results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with statistical significance taken at P<.05.

Results: Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, cardenoloides, anthraquinones, tannins and flavonoids. GC/MS showed the presence of twenty-two active compounds in MEPN. G6PDH, and CAT significantly increased in the diabetic treated with MEPN and metformin compared with normal control. G6PDH, CAT, GPx and Alb levels were significantly increased in diabetic treated with MEPN and metformin groups compared with diabetic untreated. SOD was significantly increased in diabetic treated with 100 mg/kg MEPN compared with normal control. LDH was significantly increased in diabetic treated with metformin compared with diabetic untreated. BUN and CRT significantly decreased in diabetic treated with MEPN and metformin groups when compared with diabetic untreated.

Conclusion: MEPN possesses active components which may be useful in ameliorating the oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in diabetes mellitus.


Open Access Review Article

Advanced Glycation Endproducts, (AGEs): Formation, Complication and Pharmacological Evaluation to Its Inhibition

Mohammad Nadeem Khan, Ragini Gothawal

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/40927

Glycation commonly known as non-enzymatic glycosylation is the result of sugar molecules binding with a protein or lipid molecule without controlling the action of an enzyme. During the process of glycation, early stage glycation compounds are formed first, which subsequently rearrange into final advanced glycation end products (AGEs) structures through a series of very complex chemical reactions and formed methylglyoxal-lysine dimer, glyoxallysine dimer and the deoxyglucosone-lysine dimer . AGEs are involved in many age related diseases such as type–II (diabetic mellitus), cardiovascular disease (the endothelial cell, collagen, fibrinogen are damaged), Alzheimer diseases (amyloid protein are side product of the reaction progressing to AGEs), Cancer (acryl-amide and other side product are related), peripheral neuropathy (the myelin is attached), and other sensory losses such as deafness (due to demyelination), and blindness (mostly due to micro-vascular damage in the retina), this span of diseases is the result of very root level at which glycation interfere with molecular and cellular functioning throughout the body. Pharmacologically influence the process of non-enzymatic glycation and AGE product formation Inhibit the formation of AGEs are purported to have therapeutic potentials in patients with hyperglycemia and age-related diseases. The redox process is believed to play an important role in AGEs formation The best cross-link inhibitors currently available are carnosine, aminoguanidine, metformin and acarbose, whereas others are now becoming available. No cross-link breakers are commercially obtainable as yet, but these will be marketed within 2-3 years. Soon after, combinations of inhibitors and breakers are due to follow.