Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Susceptibility Analysis of Gram Negative Pathogens in Tertiary Care Transplant Hospital, Mumbai

Niranjan B. Patil, Shetye Sharma, Manjusha Aggarwal, Mihir Vora, Zaheer Virani, Parijat Gupte, Bharat Shah

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/41893

Introduction: The susceptibility pattern of antibiotics varies in different geographical regions and needs to be updated regularly to guide clinicians in choosing appropriate empirical therapies. This study was aimed to evaluate the susceptibility pattern of Gram negative clinical isolates towards commonly used antibiotics and a novel antibiotic adjuvant entity, CSE-1034 (Ceftriaxone+ Sulbactam+EDTA).

Methods: A retrospective observational analysis of antibiogram was performed to characterize the susceptibility pattern of different pathogen isolates from various clinical sources. A total of 203 Gram negative isolates identified from the period June 2015 to June 2016 were included in the study.

Results: Of the total 203 gram-negative isolates, the majority were obtained from urine (44.3%) followed by respiratory specimens (12.3%), blood (12.3%), pus (9.3%) and collection/fluids (7.3%). The most predominant isolates were Escherichia coli (49.8 %) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (37.4%) whereas other pathogens contributed <5%. CSE-1034 and Meropenem were almost equally active against E. coli (85.1%: 89.1%) and K. pneumoniae (57.8%: 60.5%). The susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to CSE-1034 was 83.3% and 66.6% whereas none of the isolates was reported Meropenem-susceptible. All the isolates of Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, and Proteus mirabilis were reported 100% susceptible towards both CSE-1034 and Meropenem.

The susceptibility towards Piperacillin-Tazobactam (Pip-Taz) was comparable to cefoperazone-Sulbactam.  Pip-Taz displayed 67.3% and 46.0% and Cefoperazone-Sulbactam displayed 69.3% and 53.9% susceptibility against E. coli and K. pneumoniae. All the isolates of E. cloacae and P. mirabilis were susceptible to both Cefoperazone-Sulbactam and Pip-Taz whereas the susceptibility of other isolates varied for the two antibiotics.

Conclusion: The present study suggests that CSE-1034 may be considered as an important therapeutic option for Gram negative bacteria as monotherapy or as a part of combination therapy. It may also be considered as useful option to spare carbapenems.


Open Access Original Research Article

Anatomical Variations in the Brachial Artery, Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus and Musculocutaneous Nerve in Adult Male Sudanese Cadavers

Mohammed Abdelsalam Ahmed Abdelmotalab

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/42617

Knowledge of different variations is important for the clinicians and other medical disciplines for the diagnostic, interventional and surgical procedures. The aim of this study is to report any unusual observations of anatomical structures during the dissection of properly embalmed three male cadavers at the department of human anatomy at National University Faculty of Medicine from 1st July 2015 to 5th May 2016. Cadaver (1) about 70 years old male was showed anatomical variations in musculocutaneous nerve formation. Cadaver (2) about 60 years old male shows that extensor carpi radialis longus inserted by two tendons. Cadaver (3) about 55 years was showed the high division of brachial artery into radial and ulnar arteries at the upper end of the arm. No additional variation was observed. The unusual observations should be reported due to their greater clinical significance.


Open Access Original Research Article

Membrane Stabilizing Effects of Calcium in Salt-induced Hypertensive Pregnancy

A. A. Aigbiremolen, G. T. Olowe, C. P. Aloamaka

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/41586

Though Calcium is involved in the mechanisms of increase contractility, it has been shown that at high concentration, calcium ions may cause membrane stabilization in which case the smooth muscle responsiveness decreases. Theoretically, a decrease in membrane permeability to calcium ions caused by increased extracellular calcium concentration stabilizes membranes. Apparently, administration of high level of calcium ion may become useful either by way of preventing or diminishing pregnancy-induced hypertension (preeclampsia). The goal of this study was to examine the effect of calcium ion on the sensitivity of blood vessels during pregnancy, especially in salt induced hypertensive pregnancy. The isolated aorta of Forty (40) adult Sprague Dawley rats [four (4) groups of ten (10) rats each; with Group 1 = non pregnant fed with normal rat chow, Group 2 = normal rat chow + 5% CaCl2 prior to and during 6 weeks feeding on 1.6% NaCl, Group 3 = normal rat chow + 8% NaCl for 6 weeks, and Group 4 = pregnant rats (350-380) fed on normal rat chow] was cut into 2 mm ring segments and each segment was suspended between two L-shaped holders. The lower holder was fixed to the base of 20 ml organ baths containing physiological salt solution, while the upper holder was connected to isometric transducer coupled to Ugo Bassile recorder. The presence of functional endothelium was ascertained before the start of the experiment by the observation of at least, 42% relaxation to 10-7 M acetylcholine in blood vessels contracted with 10-7 M nor-adrenaline. Concentration-response tests to phenylephrine, KCl, and CaCl2 were done and result compared. Results show that the maximum contraction to phenylephrine of rings from pregnant rats fed on calcium chloride diets were insignificantly different from those of rats fed only with sodium chloride diet. Their sensitivities were however significantly (p<0.05) different. This observation suggests that the effect of Ca2+ feeding may be limited to the sensitivity, rather than the maximum contraction. Prior calcium feeding along with simultaneous high salt (sodium chloride) intake appears to interfere with the enhancement of vascular contractility associated with high salt intake. Ca2+ would therefore be relevant in the prevention and treatment of salt-induced hypertension in pregnancy.


Open Access Original Research Article

Ethanolic Seed Extract of Garcinia kola Reduces Epididymal Sperm Count and Some Serum Reproductive Hormone Concentrations in Adult Male Albino Wistar Rats

Emmanuel C. Okafor, Agbai E. Onuka, Idiongo O. Umoh, Felix N. Ugwu

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/42640

Aims: This study aimed to elucidate the effect of Garcinia kola on serum reproductive hormones and sperm count in adult male albino Wistar rats.

Study Design:  Albino rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups containing 7 rats each.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Human Physiology, Madonna University, Nigeria.

Methodology: Group 1 served as the control group, while groups 2, 3 and 4 received Garcinia kola extract orally at the rate of 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 300mg/kg body weight, respectively once daily for 6 weeks (n꞊7). After 6 weeks of treatment, reproductive hormonal assay was carried out using the rat serum. Epididymal spermatozoa were collected and sperm count was determined using heamocytometer.

Results: The experimental groups had significantly lower weights of testes (P<0.05), as compared with the control group. The weights of epididymis in the experimental groups where significantly (P<0.05) higher when compared to the control group. There was a significant decrease in the serum concentration of testosterone (P<0.05) in the experimental groups when compared to the control group. Semen analysis also showed a significant decrease in the sperm density (P<0.05) in the groups treated with Garcinia kola extract when compared to the control group.

Conclusion: Ethanolic seed extract of Garcinia kola showed a possible anti-spermatogenic consequence on treatment in male Wistar rats, and may be detrimental to male reproductive health, hence need to regulate its consumption rate.


Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Antibiotics Inhibitory to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from Soil Actinomycetes

Umar Abdullahi, John, Solomon Obidah, Suleiman Mahmoud Jada

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/39742

Actinomycetes are subgroup of actinobacteria which include Streptomyces, a source of many important antibiotics. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is one of the emerging infectious diseases which pose a significant health and occupational risk worldwide. The aim of this work was designed to isolate and characterize antibiotic producing actinomycetes from soil capable of inhibiting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Soil samples collected from rhizosphere of plants, agricultural soil and hospital dump soil cultured on starch casein agar yielded only one (1) isolate showing antibacterial activity against a diameter of zone of inhibition for Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (12 mm), Bacillus subtilis (16 mm), Escherichia coli (15 mm) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14 mm). Ethyl acetate was used to extract antibacterial compounds from the culture filtrate. Thin Layer Chromatography was done on silica gel using Methanol: Chloroform (9.4:0.6). The extract was analyzed with Fourier Transform-Infrared Red spectroscopy with a view to establish the chemical identity of the compound.  The isolate showed good growth and white aerial mycelium on starch-casein agar and whitish-brown substrate mycelium on starch-casein broth. The isolate also utilized glucose, sucrose and fructose during sugar fermentation and were positive on amylolytic activity, hydrogen sulfide production, and nitrate reduction, milk Coagulation and Peptonization and gram staining. Results also suggest that the actinomycete isolate belongs to the genus Micromonospora. A candidate (Rf: 0.8) with antibiotic potential against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from soil habitat. The chemical finger prints identified in the extract included aldehydes, alkynes, 2 aromatic rings, alkanes and alkynes. The extract (Rf: 0.8) has antibiotic potential against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The chemical finger prints identified in the extract included aldehydes, alkynes, 2 aromatic rings, alkanes and alkynes. Based on biochemical and morphological characterization, the isolate (A2) belongs to the genus Micromonospora of the family Micromonosporoceae.