Open Access Systematic Review Article

Eradication of Rabies with Mass Parental Vaccination, Post-exposure Prophylaxis and Gene Therapy: A Systematic Review

Martin L. Nelwan

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/43202

Aims: To review canine rabies, mass parental vaccination, human post-exposure prophylaxis, gene therapy and costs for fighting rabies.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Animal Science – Other, Nelwan Institution for Human Resource Development, Indonesia, between December 2017 and March 2018.

Methodology: The author searched the Pubmed Database at NCBI for articles on rabies disease published between 2007 and 2018. All articles are open access and in English. For rabies virus examination, Seller’s test was used. In this article, references written by the author and other relevant publications were included. The author reviewed a rabies dog case kept at Nelwan Institution for Human Resource Development.

Results: The dog showed clinical signs such as inappetence, urinary frequency and soaking in a small, juicy drain. Currently, to treat rabies, no drugs are available. For rabies prevention, vaccination is the best way. To eradicate rabies, mass vaccination in dogs, post-exposure prophylaxis, and gene therapy should be used.  Fort rabies disease eradication, minimum 70% of the dog population should receive vaccination. In addition, humans with category II exposure should receive rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin.

Conclusion: To eradicate rabies, vaccinations are required. In addition, gene therapy can eliminate rabies from the infected neurons by using rAAV-N796. CRISPR/Cas9 system in combination with the MMEJ-based method. Furthermore, mass parental vaccination, post-exposure prophylaxis and gene therapy can reduce costs in controlling rabies disease.

Registration Number: PROSPERO (CRD42018084448).


Open Access Original Research Article

Behavioural Reactions of Random-Bred Mice under the Influence of Hypouricemia and Aegopodium podagraria L. Preparations

O. V. Tovchiga, S. Yu. Shtrygol’, T. V. Gorbatch

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/42362

Aims: Aegopodium podagraria L. preparations normalize uric acid metabolism and exert organoprotective effects. Still, their efficacy was not determined in combined use with therapeutic doses of allopurinol. This study addressed the changes of uric acid metabolism and CNS in mice undergoing hyperuricemia correction with allopurinol combined with A. podagraria extract or tincture.

Study Design:  The mice were randomly distributed to five groups:  Group I: intact control; Group II: control for manipulations and hypouricemia (allopurinol, 2.5 mg/kg); Group III: potassium oxonate (PO), 250 mg/kg + allopurinol, 10 mg/kg; Group IV: PO, 250 mg/kg + allopurinol, 10 mg/kg + extract, 1 g/kg; Group V: PO, 250 mg/kg + allopurinol, 10 mg/kg + tincture, 1 ml/kg.

Place and Duration of Study: Central Scientific-Research Laboratory, National University of Pharmacy, Kharkiv, Department of Biochemistry, Kharkiv National Medical University, June 2017 – September 2017.

Methodology: Beginning from the 15th day psychopharmacological tests were carried out. At day 21, xanthine oxidase activity in the liver and kidney, uricase activity in the liver, uric acid level in blood and brain, GABA, serotonin, aspartic and glutamic acids concentrations in the brain were determined.

Results: The extract as well as the tincture did not counteract the influence of allopurinol on xanthine oxidase, liver uric acid level was decreased, and uricemia slightly elevated (especially by the tincture) allowing to suggest the changes of uric acid transport. Such changes were also possible in brain resulting in the increased uric acid level in animals receiving combinations with A. podagraria or allopurinol per se. In these groups, GABA brain content was reduced, while aspartic and glutamic acids content was increased. The extract and especially the tincture decreased brain serotonin level (which was elevated by PO and allopurinol). Allopurinol per se and its combinations with A. podagraria preparations mildly reduced locomotor activity. Allopurinol and PO increased the duration of stay in the open arms of the elevated plus maze that was eliminated by the tincture, which also normalized the number of mice immediately visiting the open arm. The extract and the tincture decreased depressivity level in the tail suspension test. The tincture restored physical endurance in the weight-loading forced swimming test.

Conclusion: The results substantiate the combined use of allopurinol and A. podagraria preparations, which do not counteract the main effect of allopurinol and do not cause the negative changes of the CNS (no unfavourable shifts in locomotion and anxiety are induced, while depressivity and physical endurance are partially improved). Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms of A. podagraria active components interaction with allopurinol within the brain.


Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness and Willingness to Participate in Community Based Health Insurance among Artisans in Abakaliki, Southeast Nigeria

B. N. Azuogu, N. C. Eze

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/42839

Background: Health insurance (HI) is a social security system that serves as a financial risk protection for families and small businesses, and also increases access to priority health services. This study determined awareness and willingness to participate in Community Based Health Insurance (CHBI) Scheme by Artisans in Abakaliki, Southeast Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional survey of 380 artisans in Abakaliki was carried out. Respondents were selected using a stratified systematic random sampling method to cover all the specialties. Research instrument was semi structured interviewer administered pre tested questionnaire. Data was analysed using the SPSS software. Chi‑squared test was used for association at significance level of 5%.  

Results: Mean age of the artisans was 31.3 ± 10.3 years and mean income was N15277. Generally, only 28.7% of respondents were aware of health insurance, out of which 3.9% were aware of CBHI. Only 5.8% of the artisans had been on any form of Health Insurance, of which 95.5% were on the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). Merely 2.9% of the artisans were currently enrolled in CBHI. Most of the respondents (78.9%) were willing to participate (WTP) in CBHI with their preferred organizer being government (77.5%). Majority of respondents were willing to pay premiums ranging from N400 (91.7%) to N1500 (64.6%) for health services that include surgery and hospitalization. There was statistically significant association between WTP in health insurance and educational status (p = 0.002).

Conclusion: The artisans had very low awareness of health insurance but majority indicated willingness to participate and pay in a Government-backed well organised Scheme. Aggressive stakeholders’ enlightenment campaign is therefore imperative to increase their awareness.


Open Access Original Research Article

Neuroprotective Effect of Ethanol Extract of Moringa oleifera Leaf on the Neurofibres of Cerebellum of Quinine-treated Adult Wistar Rats

I. U. Umoh, I. A. Edagha, A. N. Aquaisua

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/42865

Aim: The neuroprotective effect of ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera leaf on the myelin and neurofibres of cerebellum in quinine treated adult Wistar rats was studied.

Place of Study: Department of Anatomy, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

Study Design: Thirty-five (35) rats weighing between 180 – 200 g were randomly assigned into seven groups of 5 rats each. Group 1 served as the control while Groups 2 - 7 were the experimental groups. Groups 2 - 4 received 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg body weight of quinine hypochloride injection intramuscularly eight hourly for seven days, respectively. Animals in Group 5 were administered 250 mg/kg of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts and 10 mg/kg body weight of quinine; Group 6, 500 mg/kg of the extracts and 20 mg/kg of quinine while Group 7 received 750 mg/kg of extracts and 30 mg/kg quinine, all for 7 days.

Methodology: Twenty-four hours after final administration, the animals were sacrificed under chloroform inhalational anesthesia. Brain tissues were perfused with phosphate buffered solution, harvested and processed for histomorphological observations of the myelin and neurofibres of the cerebellum using Belcshowsky and Marchi’s staining techniques.

Results: Results revealed that quinine caused neuronal distortions, nuclear degenerations, thickened neurofibres, vascular congestions, degenerative changes on myelin with vacuolations in the cerebellum. Incorporation of the Moringa oleifera extract to the quinine treated groups revealed neuronal regenerations and restoration of normal cerebellar cyto-architecture.

Conclusion: The results revealed that Moringa oleifera leaf extract has neuroprotective effects on the myelin and neurofibres when exposed to quinine neurotoxicity.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) on Oxidative Stress Status of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Induced-wistar Rats

Melvin Nnaemeka Ugwu, Mbeh Ubana Eteng, Wilson Achu Omang, Margaret Akpan Eno

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/43112

Background: The most significant risk factor for developing benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an advanced age. As BPH and aberrant changes in reactive oxygen species become more common with ageing, oxygen species signalling may play an important role in the development and progression of this disease. In this study, we investigated the effect of Nigerian indigenous plant; Vernonia amygdalina (VA) on oxidative stress indices in BPH induced rats.

Methods: BPH was induced in male rats weighing 200-300 g by exogenous administration of testosterone and estradiol via subcutaneous injection at a dose of 400 µg/kg testosterone (T) and 80 µg/kg estradiol (E2) respectively. Thirty (30) rats were divided into five groups. One group was used as a normal control, and the other groups received subcutaneous injections of the hormones for 3 weeks to induce BPH. Groups I and II were treated with different doses of VA extract (50 and 100 mg kg–1 body weight respectively) and group III received finasteride (0.1 mg kg–1), all by gavages for forty-two days, while group IV was left untreated, group V served as normal control. After forty-two days of treatment with VA extract, the rats were anaesthetised by short contact with trichloromethane vapour. Blood was collected by cardiac puncture and the sera centrifuged and used for the determination of different biochemical indices. The liver and kidney were harvested and homogenised and used for the assays of oxidative activities. 

Results: The activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the extract treated rats were significantly increased when compared the BPH control which had a significant reduction in the activities of these enzymes. The concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the extract treated group significantly (P<0.05) increased while thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) concentration decreased when compared to BPH control group.

Conclusion: Human prostate tissue is vulnerable to oxidative damage due to more rapid cell turnover. Therefore Vernonia amygdalina can be used to reduce oxidative stress which was implicated in the pathogenesis of BPH.