This research studied the effect of honey, coffee and vitamin E on blood glucose level in a non-diabetic experimental design. A total of 30 Wistar rats weighing 200-220 grams were used. The experimental period lasted for 56 days. Blood glucose test was carried out on days 0, 18, 37 and 56. Data derived from the experiment was presented after mean comparisons and percentage change evaluation. The result showed that honey and honey co-administered coffee or vitamin E time-dependently reduced blood glucose level significantly. Vitamin E alone did not have any significant effect on blood glucose, but coffee alone time-dependently increased blood glucose level significantly. From this study, honey may be effective in regulating blood glucose level, vitamin E, except co-administered honey, has no significant effect on blood glucose and coffee alone may cause a significant increase in blood glucose level, except if it is co-administered honey.
To investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of ethanol extract of Enicostemma littorale Blume (Ens) against CCl4 induced hepatic injury in albino rats. Male albino rats of six numbers in each group were undertaken for study. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of E. littorale Blume (Ens) ethanol extract at a dosage of 100 & 200 mg/kg body weight was evaluated. The degree of hepatoprotection was assessed by measuring the activity levels of the marker enzymes such as serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) and total bilirubin. Lipid peroxidation caused by free radicals was assessed by measuring the activity levels of the tissue antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD). The CCl4 administered rats recorded elevated activity levels of serum AST, ALT, ALP and ACP revealing CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity. In the groups treated with 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of the extract, the above biochemical markers of hepatotoxicity were found to be decreased when compared to CCl4 treated control group. Both the doses of ethanol extract of Enicostemma littorale (EEEL) used in the study showed significant protective property than the control. In the groups treated with 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of the extract, GPX, SOD and catalase were found to be increased when compared to CCl4 treated control group. It can be concluded that the ethanol extract of E. littorale Blume is not only hepatoprotective but also possess significant antioxidant property.
Carpentry as an occupation involves the use of woods routinely on daily basis. However, these woods are preserved through the application of certain chemicals, some of which happens to be heavy metals. When these woods are processed, the heavy metals together with wood dust are released into the work environment, and when this is inhaled or involuntarily ingested over a period, it may result in bioaccumulation of the heavy metals. This study examined the serum levels of some heavy metals (chromium, nickel and arsenic) in carpenters residing in Port-Harcourt in relation to their lifestyle. A total of 180 apparently healthy male subjects were used for the study, out of which 90 subjects were carpenters (test subjects), while the other 90 subjects were non-carpenters (control subjects). Relevant information was collected using a structured questionnaire, written consent from each subject was obtained, and blood samples collected and analysed. The Solar Thermo-Elemental Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) Model SE-71906 was used to analyse the heavy metals. The results showed a significantly higher (p<0.05) serum levels of chromium, nickel and arsenic in the carpenters as compared to the control subjects. Carpenters who were regular alcohol drinkers had a significantly higher (p<0.05) serum levels of chromium, nickel and arsenic as compared to occasional drinkers and non-drinkers, while carpenters who were smokers had a significantly higher (p<0.05) serum levels of chromium and nickel as compared to ex-smokers and non-smokers. These findings suggest that occupational exposure to wood dust may predispose carpenters and other wood workers to heavy metal intoxication, and that, drinking and/or smoking lifestyle may further predispose them to the heavy metal intoxication.
This study evaluated the aromatherapeutic tendency of Allium cepa in carbon monoxide-induced lung parenchyma toxicity. Allium cepa and carbon monoxide served as the main treatments in this study. The time-dependent effect and ratio of pro-oxidant to antioxidant caused by each treatment and combination of both treatments was also determined. Thirty (30) experimental rats were used. The study design included six (6) groups with equal number of animals selected randomly. The test groups included i the control treated normal saline and feed; ii Allium cepa 50 mg/kg; iii carbon monoxide 3300 ppm for 1 hour; ivAllium cepa 50 mg/kg and carbon monoxide 3300 ppm; v Allium cepa 100 mg/kg and carbon monoxide 3300 ppm; vi Allium cepa 200 mg/kg and carbon monoxide 3300ppm. The assays included lung tissue homogenates and lung tissue stress enzyme and non-enzyme markers. Allium cepa alone and at moderate and high doses, effectively prevented carbon monoxide-induced lung tissue toxicity. From the outcome of this study, Allium cepa has the potential to be effective when used as an antitoxic and aromatherapeutic agent.
Salmonella spp are etiological agents of diarrhea and systemic infections in humans, most commonly as secondary contaminants of food originating from animals and the environment or irrigated by faecal wastes. Decades of indiscriminate use and abuse of antibiotics have resulted in increased development of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella spp to different antibiotics, creating major problems in treatment of relapsing salmonellosis and other enteric diseases across many age groups. This review x-rays the mechanisms of antibiotic resistances, genetic variations and clinical implications of antibiotic resistant Salmonella spp. The findings of this review revealed that antibiotic resistance in Salmonella spp resulted from a wide range of mechanisms developed by serovars of Salmonella. It has also been discovered from scientific studies that the multiple antibiotic resistances noticed in many serovars of Salmonella were due to genetic modifications in these serovars, chiefly mutation. Adequate drug use control and antibiotic combination therapies are encouraged for effective prophylaxis of relapsing salmonellosis caused by antibiotic resistant Salmonella spp.