Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Salmonella spp from Clinical and Water Samples in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

A. K. Onifade, O. I. Afolami

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/36277

Investigations were carried out to determine the antibiotic resistance patterns of Salmonella spp isolated from clinical and water samples in Akure metropolis. Isolation of Salmonella spp was carried out using standard procedures and isolates were identified by various biochemical tests. Antibiotic sensitivity test was carried out on all the isolates of Salmonella identified against six antibiotics of standard concentrations (gentamycin, amoxicillin, ofloxacillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and pefloxacin) using Kirby-Bauer test. A total of 61 strains of Salmonella from water samples and 79 strains of Salmonella from clinical samples were identified. Furthermore, a total of 20 multiple antibiotic resistant isolates (MDRIs) of Salmonella spp were screened from the water samples while 30 MDRIs of Salmonella spp were screened out from clinical samples respectively.  A total of 30 MDRIs of Salmonella spp were identified from clinical samples while 20 MDRIs of Salmonella spp were screened from water samples. High levels of antibiotic resistance were observed in MDRIs of Salmonella spp obtained. The results gave insights into the rising incidence of relapsing salmonellos is caused by MDRIs of Salmonella which was prevalent in the metropolis between July and October 2014 during which this research was conducted. Better antibiotic drug use control policies and public health education are encouraged for environmental health bio saftey of Metropolis.


Open Access Original Research Article

Hypoxaemia in Hospitalised Children at the Emergency Unit of a Specialist Hospital in Gusau, North- Western Nigeria

B. I. Garba, A. S. Muhammad, A. O. Adeniji, A. A. Ben-Wazieh

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/43544

Introduction: Hypoxaemia is a common complication in hospitalised children, which can be detected using pulse oximeter, a valuable non-invasive and cost- effective tool. Indeed, in most developing countries, hypoxaemia is usually identified by clinical signs alone, and this has been shown to be insensitive.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of hypoxaemia, socio-demographic and clinical predictors associated with hypoxaemia among hospitalised children in a Specialist Hospital in Gusau, Zamfara State, North-Western Nigeria.

Methodology: A prospective, cross-sectional study of admissions into the Emergency Paediatric Unit of Ahmad Sani Yariman Bakura Specialist Hospital (ASYBSH), Gusau over a three (3) month period. Relevant information was recorded in a proforma and analysed accordingly. Hypoxaemia is defined as oxygen saturation <90% and all hypoxaemic children were provided with oxygen.

Results: 217 children were studied of which 141(65.0%) were males with a M:F ratio of 1.9:1. Majority were diagnosed with severe malaria 59(27.2%), followed by Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) 39(18.0%) and Pneumonia 24(11.0%). Hypoxaemia was present in 26(12.0%) children, equally seen in both sexes.

Predictors of hypoxaemia were tachypnoea (p=0.012, 95%CI 0.430-0.680) and chest indrawing (p=0.008, 95% CI 0.380-0.615). A total of 194 children (89.4%) were discharged while 18 (8.3%) died. Seven (38.9%) of the mortality had hypoxaemia. Case fatality rate for hypoxaemic children was high (i.e. 7/26=26.9%), and this was significant (Fischer’s exact=0.001).

Conclusion: Hypoxaemia was common among children admitted to the emergency unit and found to be common in children with severe malaria. Tachypnoea and chest indrawing were associated with hypoxaemia. It was found to be associated with death irrespective of the diagnosis.  Pulse oximetry and blood gas analysis for diagnosis are highly recommended to reduce morbidity and mortality.


Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-Economic Status and Academic Performance of Primary School-Aged Children with Asthma

Obinna Chukwuebuka Nduagubam

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/44304

Aims: This aim of this study was to determine the relationship between socio-economic class and academic performance of primary school children with asthma and to compare with those of children without.

Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Asthma clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu State and the schools attended by the children with and without asthma within Enugu metropolis.

Methodology: One hundred and twenty children with asthma (subjects) aged 5 – 11 years were consecutively recruited at the asthma clinic of UNTH Enugu and their age, sex and socio-economic class (SEC) - matched normal classmates were enrolled as controls. Their SEC was obtained using the tool described by Oyedeji while their academic performance was obtained using their scores over an academic session. Their Intelligence Quotient (IQ) was determined using the Draw-A-Person- Test. The relationship between SEC and academic performance of children with asthma was determined and was compared with that of the 120 controls.

Results: A significant association exists between academic performance and socio-economic class in both subjects (2 = 20.034, d.f = 6, p = .003) and control (2 = 18.926, d.f = 3, p < .001). Academic performance has a significant but weak correlation (Spearman’s) with socioeconomic class among the subjects (r = 0.194; p = .03) but not among controls (r = - 0.122; p = .19).

Conclusion: Socio-economic class is directly related to academic performance as higher socioeconomic classes are associated with high academic performance both in children with asthma and in those without.


Open Access Original Research Article

Shorter and Economical Terlipressin Regime for Esophageal Variceal Bleeding

Muhammad Assad Saleem, Maha Sanam, Mubin Tahir

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/44762

Aims: To compare the effectiveness of treatment with Terlipressin for 12-hour and for 72-hour in inhibiting the episodes of rebleeding once endoscopic band ligation is done.

Study Design: Randomized Clinical Trial.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Medicine (Unit of Gastroenterology and Hepatology) at District Headquarter (DHQ) Teaching Hospital, Sahiwal (Pakistan) during February to April, 2018.

Methodology: Patients with cirrhosis presenting to emergency of our hospital with upper GI (gastrointestinal) bleeding was given Terlipressin 2 mg IV bolus, followed by 1mg every 6-hourly until endoscopy was done. Those with proven esophageal varices as the cause of bleeding were managed with band ligation and were enrolled. 54 enrolled patients were randomized into 14 (25.9%) in control Group-A and 40 (74.1%) in experimental Group-B. Group-A was treated for 72-hour with Terlipressin while Group-B was treated for 12-hour. Both groups were observed for episodes of rebleeding for at least 5 days.

Results: Rebleeding was observed in 1 (7.1%) patient in Group-A and 2 (6.7%) in Group-B during the 5-day period. All 3 (5.5%) underwent second endoscopy. The Group-A patient and 1 (3.3%) of 2 Group-B patients showed ulcers around the sites of band ligation as cause of bleeding. The second patient in Group-B showed esophagus varices requiring repeated banding.

Conclusion: 12-hour Terlipressin treatment along with banding is cheaper while as effective as 72-hour regime.


Open Access Review Article

Pharmacovigilance: There is a Need for All to Get Involved!

Emmanuel M. Baah

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/44156

The harm(s) a drug may cause may not be known at the time it gains market authorisation. Drug regulatory agencies weigh the benefits that the drug presents against the potential harms it could pose and allow it to be marketed if it is believed that the drug has a favourable risk-benefit ratio. Regulatory agencies then evaluate the drug’s risk profile as it is used on a large scale and institute remedial measures if found necessary. Data is needed in establishing that an Adverse Event (AE) accompanying drug use is, in fact, an Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR), and in carrying out the functions outlined above. This paper explores some of the issues involved, the importance of data in the work of regulatory agencies and draws attention to the need for all to facilitate the work of regulatory agencies.