Open Access Systematic Review Article

Pregnancy and COVID-19: A Systematic Review

Dipu Das, Namita Rani Sinha, Shahina Akhter, Tahmina Sharmin, Sandip Kanungo

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 15-25
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2022/v11i430195

In Bangladesh, the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has already resulted in 1.52 million cases of sickness and 26,794 deaths by 2021-09-09. As a result of hormonal and physiological shifts, pregnant women may be more vulnerable to life-threatening lung infections. During 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, scientists sought to thoroughly analyze the available literature on the link between SARS-CoV-2 infections and pregnancy. This study's primary objective was to evaluate the literature about the consequences of SARS-related CoV-2 on pregnancy. We have collected the data for this meta-analysis by searching PubMed, Scopus, Medline, the Cochrane database, Google Scholar, and the reference lists of all included papers. We used the PRISMA criteria to evaluate the abstracts of the published research articles. After ensuring data consistency, only sources and materials useful to the study's objectives were used. We have completed our review of the literature and have included 23 sarticles in our analysis.

Open Access Case Study

Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation of Bile Ducts: Case Report

Mohammad Saeed Sarwar, Ashraf ALakkad, Hossam Aldin Fawzy

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 56-61
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2022/v11i4202

Background: Ascariasis is a common helminthic disease that affects the gastrointestinal tract of human beings and is caused by the Ascaris lumbricoid worm. Most of the time, this parasite resides in the intestinal lumen, but it can occasionally travel to the biliary tract through the ampulla of Vater. The most serious and potentially fatal complication of intestinal ascariasis is biliary ascariasis, which can appear in different ways.

Case Report: A non-diabetic, non-alcoholic female reported to the emergency department with a one-day history of abdominal pain and vomiting with worms. The pain began gradually with a score of 7/10 and rapidly deteriorated during the day, reaching 10/10 at the hospital presentation. The patient also had a significant medical history.  Before papillotomy, she underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with the removal of one common bile duct (CBD) stone, but no stent was implanted. She had her laparoscopic cholecystectomy done as well. Laboratory examination revealed normal liver function tests and C-reactive protein. While abdominal ultrasound confirmed the presence of hepatic pericholangitis and on ultrasound imaging, the CBD was found to be enlarged approximately 7 mm in diameter and had a linear tubular structure with centre faint echogenicity and periphery tubularity. The ultimate diagnosis of the patient was cholangitis brought on by Ascaris lumbricoides. After the diagnosis, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed sphincterotomy with CBD dilation. The worm was extracted by grasping it with biopsy forceps and pulled out of the papilla using a balloon catheter. The length of the worm was 18 centimeters.

Conclusion: Ascaris is the most frequently occurring disease that can cause biliary complications, such as cholangitis.  This case report suggests that cholangitis caused by Ascaris lumbricoides can be successfully treated with the endoscopic approach, indicating that endoscopy could be a viable option to manage ascaris.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Drying Methods and Storage Time on Quality of Roselle Calyxes (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Plants

Hanem, A. Abd Elghany, Zeinab A. El Swaify, Zeinab A. Abd Elhafez

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2022/v11i430194

This research was conducted during the 2018 and 2019 seasons, and the aim of the research was to study the effect of each of the different drying methods (drying in the shade, direct sunlight, electric ovens, and solar dryer) and the different storage periods (0, 2, 4 and 6 months) on the quality of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) for both variety cultivars Sabhia 17 Dark and Sabhia 17 Light. The results showed that the method of drying in the shade gave the best results for most of the characterizes studied for both varieties of the both seasons, and the results for the different storage times did not differ significantly between them, especially the calyxes content of the two varieties of TPC, DPPH% and TFC. On the other hand the chemical composition data of roselle observed about the light variety is rich in ascorbic acid, TFC and TPC, while the dark variety is rich in the total anthocyanin content (490 mg / 100g DWS).

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatocellular Injury Ameliorated by a Common African Food, Parkia biglobosa

O. I. N. Onyekachi, S. F. Orji, C. N. Ugwu, C. Igwenyi, C. L. Uche, I. O. Abali, M. U. Nwobodo, C. E. Iwuoha, N. M. Chika-Igwenyi, C. A. Onyeaghala, F. U. Agu, A. I. Airaodion

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 26-34
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2022/v11i4199

Background: Parkia biglobosa seed has been reported to possess hepatoperotective potential. Therefore, this study sought to investigate its ability in ameliorating KBrO3-induced hepatotoxicity.

Methodology: P. biglobosa was extracted with soxhlet extractor with 95% ethanol as the solvent. Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats were acclimatized under laboratory conditions and were randomly grouped into A, B, C and D. Group A was given distilled water orally. Animals in groups B, C and D were administered 100 mg/kg body weight of potassium bromate, but groups C and D were also treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight of P. biglobosa respectively. Both potassium bromate and P. biglobosa were freshly prepared on daily basis and administered to rats by oral gavage. After 28 days of treatment, the animals were sacrificed under mild diethyl ether anaesthetization 24 hours after cessation of last treatment. Blood and liver tissue were collected.

Results: The findings demonstrated that, when compared to the control group, KBrO3 caused a significant increase (P˂0.05) in ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, total bilirubin (TB), conjugated bilirubin (CB), and unconjugated bilirubin (UB) levels, but decreased total protein, albumin and globulin in the serum of animals. In the liver cells, KBrO3 reduced hepatic biomarkers. These perturbations were neutralized in the groups treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, respectively.

Conclusion: The result of the present study revealed that KBrO3 is hepatotoxic at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. The result further suggests that P. biglobosa possesses hepatoprotective properties in rats in vivo. This study can be replicated in human trial.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Vernonia amygdalina on Haematological Parameters in Albino Rats

Immaculata O. Uduchi, Jacinta C. Elo-Ilo, Emmanuel C. Ogbodo, Stella N. Kanu, Eric E. Okereke

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 35-44
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2022/v11i4200

It has been demonstrated that Vernonia amygdalina, often known as the bitter leaf, offers a range of medical benefits that can improve human health. This study was designed to investigatethe effects of V. amygdalina (VA) ethanolic leaf extracts on some haematological parameters in albino rats. A total of thirty - six albino rats fed with a commercial pelleted poultry grower’s mash- diet were used for this study and they were divided into six groups, each containing six rats. Groups 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 received 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/kg body weight (bwt) of VA leaf extract three times a week at two-day intervals over a period of three weeks. Group 6 (control) received water only. The haematological parameters (red blood cell count (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total white blood cell count (TWBC), platelet (PLT) count, and WBC differentials (neutrophils, lymphocytes, and mixed cells) were analyzed using three part full blood count autoanalyzer. The results showed that although the mean neutrophil count differed significantly (p<0.05) when compared between the groups studied, there was no statistically significant (p>0.05) difference in the mean levels of PCV, Hb, RBC, TWBC, platelet count, lymphocytes and mixed cell count when compared across and between the groups. This study revealed that Vernonia amygdalina had no negative effects on the haematological indicators studied.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification and Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Biofilm-forming Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Causing Infection among Orthopedic Wound Patients

Ikemesit Udeme Peter, Ijeoma Onyinye Okolo, Henrietta Onyinye Uzoeto, Christiana Inuaesiet Edemekong, Mandu Daniel Thompson, Ezinwanne Blessing Chukwu, Ismaila Danjuma Mohammed, Idongesit Joseph Ubom, Ofonmbuk Victor Joseph, Agabus Chidiebube Nwuzo, Peace Oluchi Akpu, Ifeanyichukwu Romanus Iroha

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 45-55
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2022/v11i4201

Background and Objectives: The biofilm-forming ability of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) strains have demonstrated the involvement of MRSA biofilm in antibiotic resistance, recalcitrant and persistent infections in humans. Despite a deeper understanding of the biofilm-forming ability of MRSAstrain, it is still essential to extend the research on the identification and antibiotic resistance profile of biofilm-forming MRSA causing infection among orthopedic wound patients.

Methodology: A total of three hundred and thirty (303) patient-isolate of non-repeatable Staphylococcus aureus strains were obtained during the period of 2021 until 2022 from fracture and post-surgical orthopedic wound patients with wound duration >2months at the National Orthopedic Hospital, Enugu (NOHE). S. aureus were identified using conventional microbiological cultures Technique followed by confirmation of MRSA strain through Brilliance MRSA 2 Agar. Antibiotic Susceptibility testing (AST) of biofilm-forming MRSA was performed using the Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method and the results were interpreted using the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) zone diameter breakpoints. Multidrug Resistance (MDR) was determined for biofilm-forming MRSA.

Result:Of the 303 isolate of S. aureus, MRSA strain accounted 86(28.4 %) and 78(25.7 %) from post-surgical wound and fracture wound respectively while biofilm forming MRSA was identified in 101(33.4%) MRSA strain consisting of high proportion 66(21.8 %) fromPost-surgical wound followed by fracture wound samples recording 35(11.6 %). Association between MRSA production and biofilm formation was considered statistically significant at P< .05. The proportion of biofilm-forming MRSA resistance to β-lactam accounted 71.4-100%, macrolide resistance recorded 65.7-92.4 %, lincosamideresistance 74.3-100 %, glycopeptide resistance proportion ranged from 62.8-100 % while low level of resistance to fluoroquinolones 19.7-42.9 % and Aminoglycoside 8.6-10.6 % was observed. Biofilm-forming MRSA isolate were MDR to one or more antibiotic antimicrobial agents in at least three categories withMDRIndex range ≥ 0.3 but majority of the isolate were 91.4% and 100% susceptible to Gentamicin and Imipenem.

Conclusion: The invitro expression of biofilm formation among MRSA strain and their antibiotic resistance profile in this study makes them a potential threat and challenging pathogens with the ability to cause persistent infections in humans, especially among orthopedic wound patients. Thus the development of an antimicrobial stewardship program and regular detection of biofilm production is needed for timely intervention while judicious use of Imipenem and Gentamicin as a drug of choice for effective treatment of infection caused by biofilm-forming MRSA among orthopedic patients will avert the severity of infection. Further research of these sort should investigate the genotyping expression of a biofilm gene variant in other human diseases, different bacteria species, and orthopedic medical implant devices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) Fruit Extract Attenuates Paraquat-induced Toxicity in Wister Rats

Bawa Y. Muhammad, Sulaiman A. Barau, Moses Z. Zaruwa, Rabiu M. Modibbo, Saidu B. Ibrahim

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 62-72
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2022/v11i4203

Introduction: Paraquat is a bipyridil herbicide commonly used in modern agriculture for weed and pest control. Paraquat poisoning usually occurs through direct ingestion for suicidal intent, causing mortality as a consequence to oxidative damage, inflammation and multi-organ failure.

Objectives: In this study, we investigated the ameliorative potential of Cucurbita pepo fruit on paraqaut-induced oxidative damage, inflammation, hyperlipidemia, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in rats.

Methods: Rats were orally administered paraquat (2 mg/kg b.w) with or without the fruit extract (500 mg/kg b.w) or resveratrol (3.57 mg/kg b.w) co-administration for 2 weeks.

Results: We found C. pepo fruit extract significantly restored paraquat-induced oxidative damage, acute inflammation and hyperlipidemia. Reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration was significantly abridged in paraquat treated group, while the concentration of GSH increases substantially across groups administered fruit extract and resveratrol. Furthermore, paraquat induced concomitant reduction in the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), which was restored by the fruit extract and resveratrol. However, nitric oxide level demonstrated a substantial elevation in paraquat-treated group, but restored by both the fruit extract and resveratrol. Moreover, pumpkin fruit extract and resveratrol supplementation suppressed overproduction of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins and thus, alleviated paraquat-induced hyperlipidemia. In addition, administration of C. pepo fruit extract and resveratrol ameliorated the hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effect caused by paraquat.

Conclusion: We conclude that C. pepo fruit extract and resveratrol administration ameliorated oxidative damage, acute inflammation, hyperlipidemia, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity caused by paraquat ingestion.