Open Access Original Research Article

Anti Hyperglycemic and Anti Hyperlipidemic Activity of Linum usitatissimum and Glycyrrhiza glabra Extracts in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

Jabbar Ahmed Qureshi, Zahida Memon, Kausar Moin Mirza, Shanza Agha, Fizza Saher, Nisa Fatima Sunderjee

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/45045

Aim: The purpose of the present experimental study was to assess the antihyperglycemic activity of ethanolic extract of Linum usitatissimum seeds and Glycyrrhiza glabra roots with standard drugs metformin and glimepiride in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats model.

Materials and Methods: Total 42 Wistar albino rats were utilized in this study which separated into seven groups with six animals in each group. Negative controls for normal base line reading and was not induced with diabetes were administered 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl). and positive control i.e. in which diabetes was induced with streptozotocin were administered 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl). Other three groups were given metformin 10 mg/kg body weight (bw), glimepride 0.1 mg/kg bw and rosuvastatin 10 mg/kg/day bw as standard treatment , whereas in last two groups, ethanolic extract of L. usitatissimum seeds and G. glabra roots in combinations of 200 mg/kg and 400mg/kg were given respectively as experimental drugs. These drugs were given to all groups except negative control for 28 days after induction of diabetes with streptozotcin. At the end of the study, FBS, lipid concentration, insulin, HbA1c and serum amylase levels were evaluated.

Results: Both doses of L. usitatissimum and G. glabra extracts showed significant (p<0.001) decrease in FBS of diabetic rats. Especially L. usitatissimum and G. glabra in the combination dose of 400 mg/kg b.w showed more potency in decreasing blood glucose levels in comparison with anti-diabetic drug glimepride at the end of the experiment. All extracts showed a noteworthy decrease in total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, VLDL-C, HbA1c, insulin and serum amylase levels with improved HDL-C levels in diabetic rats compared with positive control.

Conclusions: This study indicates that the combination of both L. usitatissimum and G. glabra extracts have antihyperglycemic and anti hyperlipidemic effects in diabetic rats which might be useful for the search of dietary supplements inefficient management of Type-2 diabetes mellitus.


Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Levels of Serum Zinc and Copper among Sudanese Patients with Sickle Cell Anaemia in Khartoum State

Ghada Musa Eisa, Nuha Eljaili Abubaker, Mariam Abbas Ibrahim

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/44564

Background: Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is associated with increased risks of multiple micronutrient deficiencies. Zinc deficiency has been observed in patients with sickle cell anaemia, due to chronic haemolysis with subsequent loss of zinc from red blood cells.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the level of zinc and copper among Sudanese patients with sickle cell anaemia.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April 2018, involving forty Sudanese Patients who had been diagnosed of sickle cell anaemia, and had been admitted to Albuluk Hospital, in Khartoum State, like cases, forty age-matched healthy individuals with normal haemoglobin (HbA) were recruited as controls. The ages from 4 months to 16 years).Blood samples were collected and the levels of zinc and copper were measured, using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Data analysis was carried out, using SPSS version, 21. Mean values were calculated and independent t-test was used to compare mean values in case versus the control group. Pearson’s correlation was used to find the relationship between zinc and copper and age.

Results: There was significant decrease in the mean levels of zinc and copper in patients with sickle cell anaemia, compared to control groups. The mean ± SD: 0.137±0.079 versus 0.705±0.138 mg/l, p, value= 0.00) for zinc. The values for copper were 0.512±0.290 versus 0.923±0.214 mg/l, p, value =0.00. There was no significant difference between males and females in the mean levels of zinc (p = 0.345) and copper (p = 0.656).There was weak correlation between levels of zinc, copper and ages, (r=0.052, p, value=0.750); for zinc, (r=0.122, p, value=0.452) for copper.

Conclusion: The levels of zinc and copper were decreased in patients with sickle cell anaemia, compared to healthy individuals.  There was also a negative correlation between the levels of zinc and copper and age of patients.


Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatitis B in Pregnancy: Knowledge, Access to Screening and Vaccination in a Low-Resource Setting, Cameroon

Armelle Maffo Mengouo, Gregory Edie Halle-Ekane, Marcellin Nimpa Mengouo, Théophile Nana Njamen, Haman Makebe Nwain, Henry Luma Namme

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/44714

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health problem with a high burden in Sub-Saharan Africa. This burden is more felt in the paediatric population, mother to child transmission (MTCT) being a major mode of infection. This study sought to assess the knowledge of pregnant women on HBV and their access to screening and vaccination.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the South West Region, Cameroon from 15th January to the 15th April, 2018 involving third trimester pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) and those in the post-partum period admitted at the maternity wards of some hospitals. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire and analysed using SPSS version 23. Knowledge was evaluated using a series of twelve questions. Vaccination status was determined from vaccination cards and ANC registers.

Results: Of the 349 women studied, 31.8% were knowledgeable with scores of ≥ 6/12. High educational level (P= 0.002) and occupation as a health worker (P < .001) were associated with good knowledge. Ninety (90.0%) had been screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) during pregnancy while 14.6% had been vaccinated. Determinants of vaccination were monthly income >60.000FCFA (OR: 5.7 CI: 1.6-19.9), urban residence (OR: 4.0 CI: 1.1-15.0) and regional level of ANC health facility (OR: 12.4 CI: 2.0-76.4).

Conclusion: Only about three in ten women were knowledgeable on HBV infection. Ninety percent were screened during pregnancy but only ten percent were vaccinated. These results show that despite the high rate of HBV screening in this setting, most women have a poor level of knowledge about this infection and its prevention. We recommend that health education on HBV should be provided to pregnant women especially during antenatal visits and that preventive measures be re-enforced in South West Region.


Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of METFORMIN Alone versus Its Combination with SIMVASTATIN in the Management of Polycystic Ovary

Summer Fatima, Maha Sanam, Sehrish Khan

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/45092

Aims: To compare the effectiveness of treatment with METFORMIN alone and with a combination of METFORMIN and SIMVASTATIN in the management of polycystic ovarian syndrome.

Study Design: Randomized Clinical Trial.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Infertility Unit) at District Headquarter (DHQ) Teaching Hospital, Sahiwal (Pakistan) during June to September, 2018.

Methodology: 162 patients were randomly divided into METFORMIN group (n=81) and METFORMIN plus SIMVASTATIN group (n=81), detailed clinical history, including menstrual details, was taken with thorough examination performed. Baseline ultrasound was performed to evaluate the ovarian size and these were considered enlarged with volume >10cc or with >12 follicles in any one ovary. Blood samples were taken at baseline and after three months of therapy to determine the LH/FSH ratio and lipid profile. Efficacy was defined as >15% decrease in the baseline values.

Results: The mean age of the patients was 27.12 ±8.17 years, and the mean BMI was 24.21 ±2.2 Kg/m2. Efficacy was achieved in 67.1% patients with METFORMIN alone, while in 92.6% with combination medication (p=0.0068).

Conclusion: Managing the women having PCOS with the combination of METFORMIN and SIMVASTATIN is more beneficial as compared to treatment with METFORMIN alone.


Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Quadriceps Muscle Strengthening Exercises and Infrared Radiation Therapy in the Management of Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis in a South- Eastern Nigerian Population: A Randomised Clinical Study

Ebere Yvonne Ihegihu, Chima Collins Ihegihu, Egwuonwu Afamefuna Victor, Okonkwo Uchenna Prosper, Ativie Rita Nkechi

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/43999

Background: Quadriceps strengthening exercises and infrared radiation therapy had been shown to be effective in improving pain, function and quality of life in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA). The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of these modalities of treatment in the management of symptomatic knee OA in a south- eastern Nigerian population using knee joint pain intensity, quadriceps muscle strength and 30.4metres walk-time as outcome measures. Materials and Methods: Participants diagnosed of symptomatic knee OA were randomly distributed into two groups:  Study group (quadriceps strengthening exercises and infrared radiation therapy) and Control group (placebo). Each participant in both groups was given one tablet of vitamin B complex twice daily.  The participants in the study group in addition, performed supervised quadriceps strengthening exercises (isometric and isotonic) and were administered Infrared radiation therapy three times per week. Each participant was treated for seven consecutive weeks.

Results: The participants comprised 21 (32.81%) males and 43 (67.19%) females. The male to female ratio was 1:2. At the end of the seven weeks, there was a statistically significant reduction in knee joint pain intensity score (p<0.05), 30.4m walking time (p< 0.05) and a significant increase in quadriceps muscle strength (p< 0.05) in the study group. There was no statistically significant change (p>0.05) in any of the outcome measures in the control group.

Conclusion: Combination of quadriceps strengthening exercises and infrared radiation therapy significantly alleviated symptoms in subjects with osteoarthritis of the knee.