Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Citrus aurantifolia on the Gastrointestinal Tract of Wistar Rats

Idakwoji Precious Adejoh, Ajima Judith Nnedimkpa, Anosike Joy Chizoba, Amadi Emenike Benjamin, Nweje-Anyalowu Paul Chukwuemeka

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/45419

Objective: The anti-diarrhoea activity of the aqueous extract of the stem bark of C. aurantifolia was investigated in this study.

Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity evaluation of the aqueous extract of C. aurantifolia stem bark was carried out using rats according to Lorke’s method. Experimental diarrhoea was induced in rats with castor oil, and the effect of the extract on castor oil-induced gastrointestinal motility and enteropooling was consequently investigated.

Results: In the acute toxicity study, the extract produced no signs of toxicity or mortality in rats up to a dose of 5000 mg/kg. The oral LD50 of the aqueous stem bark extract of C. aurantifolia was therefore taken to be >5000 mg /kg. The extract significantly (p<0.05) decreased the frequency of defecation as well as in the number of unformed faeces produced by castor oil-induced diarrhoea in a dose- dependent manner. The extract also decreased the distance travelled by activated charcoal in the gastrointestinal tract of treated rats when compared to control rats. Results of castor oil-induced enteropooling revealed slight reduction in the weight of intestinal contents of treated rats compared to control rats.

Conclusion: This study shows that Citrus aurantifolia stem bark possesses significant anti-antidiarrhoeal potential and could be useful in the treatment of diarrhoea.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical Outcome Pattern in Diabetic Patients with Complicated Urinary Tract Infections Treated with Ceftriaxone-Sulbactam-EDTA. A Retrospective Study

Mandip Singh Bhatia, Ritu Attri

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/44753

Objective: In general, infectious diseases are more frequent and/or serious in patients with diabetes mellitus, complicated further by antimicrobial resistance which potentially increases their morbi-mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical utility of CSE-1034 (Ceftriaxone+Sulbactam+EDTA) in diabetic patients with complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs).

Methods: Diabetic patients with cUTIs who received CSE-1034 as empiric therapy were screened and further analyzed. CSE-1034 therapy was started empirically in all these subjects and continued or discontinued based on culture susceptibility profile and clinical outcome.

Results: Out of 85 patients admitted for cUTI, 38 patients met our inclusion criteria and were included in this study. E. coli (50.0%) was the predominant pathogen isolated followed by K. pneumoniae (21.1%). In vitro susceptibility testing had shown no susceptibility of baseline pathogens to levofloxacin, gentamicin, ceftriaxone, cefepime and cefazolin. The susceptibility rates to other antibiotics were pip-taz (23.6%), β-lactam-β-lactam inhibitor (BL-BLI) combinations (18.4-23.6%), meropenem (63.1%) and CSE-1034 (100%). 92.1% of the patients were cured with CSE-1034 empiric therapy and 7.9% with alternate meropenem therapy.

Conclusion: Our study suggested that CSE-1034 alone appears to be effective drug for the treatment of multi-drug resistant cUTI in diabetic patients and can serve as effective alternate to meropenem and replacement for BL-BLI combinations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Reasons for Missed Immunisation among Caregivers of Infants in Rural Communities of Abakaliki in Southeast Nigeria

N. C. Eze

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/44950

Background: Missed immunisation against vaccine preventable diseases is a significant public health problem especially in rural areas of Nigeria. The reasons for missed immunisation are poorly understood. This study, therefore, identified the reasons for missed immunisation in the rural areas of Abakaliki, Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: Descriptive analytical cross- sectional study design was used for the survey. Data were extracted from immunisation registers and also collected using semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire from 290 mothers/caregivers accessing childhood immunisation services in Mile Four and St.Vincent hospitals which were selected using systematic sampling technique. Analysis was done using IBM-SPSS version 22.0 and level of statistical significance set at p< 0.05 and confidence level at 95%. Ethical approval was obtained from the Research and Ethics Committee of the Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

Results: The mean age of respondents was 27.1±4.2 years. No money for transport (4.1%), forgot appointment date (4.8%), caregiver travelled (2.1%), baby was sick (6.2%) and vaccines not available (2.8%) were the main reasons for missed immunisation in both groups. Being a male caregiver was a predictor of missed immunisation in this study.                   

Conclusion: The reasons for missed immunisations identified in this study need to be addressed both individually and collectively by the government so as to enhance immunisation timeliness and improve the percentage of fully immunised children especially in rural areas where the immunisation coverage is far below the expected national coverage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antihyperglycemic Potential of Ethanolic Extract of Couroupita guianensis on Streptozocin Induced Experimental Diabetic Rat Model

Md. Mynul Hassan, Md. Mahmodul Islam, Shihab Uddin, Amrita Bhowmik, Begum Rokeya

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/44332

Background: The present study was performed to investigate the effect of oral feeding of 50% ethanolic (v/v) extract of Couroupita guianensis leaves in streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic model rats for the possible anti-diabetic mechanism.

Materials and Methods: Water, glibenclamide and extracts of Couroupita guianensis were fed to the corresponding type 2 diabetic model at the given dose (1.25 g/kg bw) for 28 consecutive days to investigate the effect on serum glucose, lipids, insulin and liver glycogen contents.

Results: The study did not cause any significant effect on degradation of depot fat, which is a common phenomenon in diabetes mellitus. Meanwhile, C. guianensis, extract improves postprandial glucose level (12.35±2.59 mmol/L) compared to control group. The serum insulin level did not increase (p= 0.148) when compared to control. Serum cholesterol level was found to be lowered at 9%. Hence, the most beneficial effect was found regarding atherogenic serum LDL level which was deceased by 2% in C. guianensis extract on 28th day. Also, the hepatic glycogen content was increased by 8% in C. guianensis extract, compared to control.

Conclusion: C. Guianensis extract has significant repressing effect on carbohydrate digestive enzymes which may function in lowering postprandial glucose levels.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Efficacy and Safety of Primalan (Mequitasine) in the Treatment of Chronic Recurrent Urticaria

Fathi Al-Ballali, Omran Bugrein, Iman Amghaiab

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/AJRIMPS/2018/41871

Objective: To assess the effect of Primalan (mequitazine) in the treatment of chronic recurrent urticaria.

Patients and Methods: Twenty four males (57%) and eighteen females (43%) (between ages 22-64 years) were selected, the mean age was 38 years. The disease duration was (4-12 months). All the patients received primalan (mequitazine) in a dose 0f 5 mg tablet twice daily, the urticarial symptoms and side effects of primalan were assessed for four weeks of the treatment.

Result: Primalan (mequitazine) proved to be effective against urticarial symptoms (good and very good response in 29 patients 69%, satisfactory in seven patients 17% and in six patients14% unsatisfactory). Good primalan tolerance in our patients was reported. Adverse event that is usually mild and transient and did not require the drug withdrawal (sleepiness in five patients 12%, dryness of the mucosa in four patients 9%). Primalan (mequitazine) can be recommended for chronic recurrent urticaria and wide application in therapy of allergic diseases.

Conclusion: Primalan (mequitazine) appears to be an effective and safety treatment of urticaria that is improve chronic urticarial symptoms and quality of life. This might benefit patients who do not respond to other anti-allergic drugs.