Following long-term consumption of kola nut (Cola nitida) diet, anxiety related behaviour were studied in 16 Swiss white mice (18-28g body weight). The open field (OF) test, elevated plus maze EPM) and the light/light transition box (LD) tests were used. Swiss white mice were fed either control diet (rodent chow; n=8) or kola nut diet (50% w/w kola-nut diet; n=8) for 28 days. All animals were allowed free access to clean drinking water. Results showed that the frequency of rearing in the kola nut diet group was lower (p< 0.05) compared to control. The non-exploratory behaviours like grooming and genital licking were also lower in the test group compared to control (p<0.001, 0.05 respectively). In the EPM test, the duration in the open arm in the kola diet group was higher compared to control (p< 0.01). The duration of grooming in the test group was however higher in the closed arm compared with control (p< 0.01). The frequency of downward dips only correlated positively with the duration in the open arm in the control [r (16) = 0.855; p< 0.01]. The kola fed animals spent more time in the light region of the LD test (p< 0.01) rearing and walling (p<0.05), and spent less time in the dark region when compared with their control. In conclusion, long-term consumption of kola nut diet decreased anxiety–related behaviour in the mice.
Aim: The shelf-life of Picralima nitida (herbal drug) and two orthodox drugs (ciprofloxacin, and pefloxacin) has been examined.
Methodology: The stability studies were carried out using the bio-based concentration-activity relationship technique. Accelerated stability studies were applied on the basis of first-order degradation kinetics to determine the shelf-life of the drugs at different temperatures (45 – 70°C) and storage times (1, 2, 3 and 4 wks). Ciprofloxacin and pefloxacin were used as the comparative drugs for the estimation of the specifications for Picralima nitida. Their half-life (t1/2) and temperature coefficient (Q10) were also investigated.
Results: All the drugs proved to be broad spectrum antibiotics and their concentrations were found to decrease with increase in storage time and temperature. Ciprofloxacin proved to be more active and stable than pefloxacin followed by Picralima nitida, but lost its activities against the organisms at the stressed condition, respectively. Picralima nitida retained its activity more at stressed condition because of the presence of active metabolites. The shelf-life (including the half-life) of ciprofloxacin was found to be 80.31 wks (533.08 wks) against Bacillus subtilis, pefloxacin was found to be 43.5 wks (288.75 wks) against Bacillus subtilis and 0.25 wks (1.65 wks) against Samonella typhi; Picralima nitida found to be 5.83 wks (38.72 wks) against Bacillus subtilis, 0.41 wks (2.69 wks) against Samonella typhi and 0.52 wks (3.45 wks) against Pseudomonas aureginosa.
Conclusion: The shelf-life of Picralima nitida, ciprofloxacin, and pefloxacin were successfully determined using the bio-based concentration-activity relationship technique; ciprofloxacin and pefloxacin were also successfully used as the comparative drugs for the estimation of the specifications for Picralima nitida in treatment based on their inhibitory activity but varies with sensitivity activities on different bacteria (or micro-organisms).
Aim: The aim of the study was to correlate anthropometric data with atherogenic indices of students in Rivers State University, Port Harcourt as a means of assessing their cardiovascular health.
Study Design: A pilot study was carried out in Rivers State University, Port Harcourt in Rivers State, Nigeria. The study was conducted within a period of 4 months (June – September, 2018). A total of 82 students were selected from the recruitment process after consenting to participate in the study. Atherogenic indices (after determination of lipid parameters values) and anthropometric measurements were done at the Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
Methodology: Five millitres (5mls) of fasting blood samples were collected into lithium heparin bottles and spun at 3500 rpm for 5 minutes to obtain plasma. Total cholesterol (TC) and Triglyceride (TG) were assayed based on enzymatic methods. High density lipoprotein (HDL) was assayed using precipitation and enzymatic method while low density lipoprotein (LDL) was calculated using Friedewald equation. After determination of lipid parameters, atherogenic indices were computed as ratios of these lipid parameters. Anthropometric measurements were collected using stadiometer, non-stretchable tape and weighing scale.
Results: Significant increases were seen in both atherogenic indices and anthropometric data of obese (OBS) and overweight (OVW) students compared to ideal weight (NOM) students. Correlation of anthropometric data with atherogenic indices in obese (OBS) students indicated significant positive correlation between WC with NHDL and CRI-2 as well as between WHR with NHDL, AC, CRI-1 and CRI-2.
Conclusion: Obesity is a strong factor among students that induces atherogenic hyperlipoproteinaemia and thus, CVD risks. Also, WHR and WC correlates strongly with atherogenic indices such as NHDL, AC, CRI-1 and CRI-2 and therefore, were seen as better and sensitive anthropometric parameters for predicting cardiovascular risks compared to WHtR and BMI.
Aim: To investigate the laxative potentials of aqueous leaf extract of Sida acuta in loperamide-induced constipation in Wistar rats.
Methods: Constipation was induced by oral administration of loperamide (3 mg/kg b.wt.). The constipated rats were orally treated daily either with 200, 400, 800 mg/kg body weight per day of the extract or 0.21 mg/kg bisacodyl (reference drug) for 7 days while the normal and constipated control groups received distilled water. The feeding characteristics, body weight, faecal properties and gastrointestinal transit ratio were monitored throughout the study period.
Results: There was significant decrease (p < 0.05) between normal and constipated rats in the number of faecal pellets and water content of faecal pellets while there was no significant changes in the feed/ water intake and body weight of rats .Administration of the graded doses of the extract to the constipated rats significantly and dose- dependently normalized (p < 0.05) the number of faecal pellets/ water content of faecal pellets and gastrointestinal ratio compared to the constipated control.
Conclusion: The aqueous root extract of Sida acuta possesses laxative activity in loperamide- induced constipated rats.
Stability testing confirms the safety and quality of an active pharmaceutical ingredient or product. The shelf life of Picralima nitida (herbal drug) and glibenclamide were evaluated using the bio-based dose-response relationship method by the use of animal model based on their pharmacological activity. Glibenclamide was used as the comparative drug for the assessment of the specifications for Picralima nitida. Their shelf life was estimated by means of accelerated stability testing on the basis of the first-order kinetics of degradation and the time required to degrade 10% of a drug at 27°C (t10%). The influence of storage time (1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks) and temperature (45, 60, and 70 °C) on the stability of the drug samples were studied. Their half-life (t1/2) and the toxicity level (LD50) were also estimated. The concentrations of the drugs were found to decline with an increase in storage time and temperature. The shelf life of glibenclamide and Picralima nitida were found to be 10.54 and 3.15 weeks, respectively; the half-life of glibenclamide and Picralima nitida were found to be 70 and 20.94 weeks, respectively. Their pharmacological activity varied due to the pharmacokinetic profile of the animal models. Also, Picralima nitida extract was found to be practically nontoxic on the tested animals (LD50 = 14.97 g/kg). From the study, it was observed that glibenclamide (used as a comparative drug) aided in the estimation of the capacity of Picralima nitida to retain its specification (quality and safety) for treatment under the influence of environmental conditions.