Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-hyperglycaemic and Mode of Action of Thaumatococcus danielli (BENN.) BENTH Ethanol Leave Extract in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

Folorunsho A. Ajayi, Olubukola. S. Olorunnisola, Adewale. Adetutu, Folashade G. Olorunfemi, Abiodun O. Owoade, Peter Adegbola, Olusegun K. Afolabi

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v6i230095

Thaumatococcus danielli (Benn.) Benth, a member of the Maranthaceae family has continued to be of immense benefit to the people in the tropics especially in Nigeria. The leaf is widely used among the “Yoruba’s” as a wrapping leaf and for the management of diabetes mellitus.

Aim: This study, evaluated the anti-diabetic and possible mode of action(s) of ethanol leaves extract of Thaumatococcus danielli using in vivo and in vitro approach.

Methods: Diabetes was induced in Albino rats by administration of Streptozotocin (65 mg/kg/b.wt, i.p). The ethanol leave extract of Thaumatococcus danielli (at a dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight was administered at single dose per day to diabetes induced rats for a period of 14 days. The possible mode of action of extract was assessed through in vitro inhibitory effect on alpha amylase, non-enzymatic glycosylation of haemoglobin and glucose uptake in yeast cell.

Results: The results showed that the plant extracts demonstrated dose and time dependent reduction in blood glucose. The extract at 250 mg/kg /b.wt and 500 mg/kg/b.wt caused a significant percentage reduction (35.00%/42.04% and 42.16%/60.43%) in blood glucose when compared with the group treated with (25 mg/kg/b.wt) of the standard drug (30.51/40.88%) and the diabetic control (10.46%/-13.67%) on day 7 and day 14 respectively. Although, the extract demonstrated significant (p<0.05) dose dependent inhibitory effect on alpha amylase with an IC50 of 837.97 µg/ml, its activity was significantly (P<0.05) lower than the standard Acarbose. Conversely, the extract showed stronger inhibition of non-enzymatic glycosylation of haemoglobin (87.51%) and enhance glucose uptake in yeast cells by 85.56% when compared with the standard drug Trolax and Metronidazole respectively.

Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that Thaumatococcus danielli (Benth) leaves contain anti-hyperglycaemic agent (s) and its possible mode of action is by promoting glucose uptake, inhibition of non-enzymatic glycosylation of haemoglobin and alpha amylase activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Role of Serum Alpha-Amylase and Glycogen Synthase in the Anti-Diabetic Potential of Terminalia catappa Aqueous Leaf Extract in Diabetic Wistar Rats

Ezekiel E. Ben, Asuquo E. Asuquo, D. U. Owu

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v6i230096

Background: The endocrinal abnormalities in diabetes mellitus as one of the numerous metabolic disorders is associated with derangement in exocrine functions of the pancreas and ultimately influences blood glucose regulation.

Aim: The study was aimed at assessing the role of alpha-amylase and glycogen synthase in anti-diabetic potential of Terminalia catappa in diabetic rats. 

Materials and Methods: Thirty five (35) Wistar rats were assigned to 5 groups of 7 animals each. Group 1 served as the control administered distilled water at 5ml/kg bodyweight and group 2 was a non diabetic group given orally, 130/kg body weight of aqueous leaf extract of Terminalia catappa.  Groups 3, 4 and 5 received a single dose of 150mg/kg body weight of alloxan solution intraperitoneally to induce diabetes and rats with blood glucose levels ≥200mg/dl after 72 hours were considered diabetic. This was followed by oral administration of 5ml/kg bodyweight of distilled water, 130mg/kg body weight of Terminalia catappa leaf extract orally and subcutaneous administration of insulin, 0.75U/kg body weight to groups 3 (diabetic), 4(diabetic + extract) and 5 (diabetic + insulin) respectively.

Results: The results showed significant (P<.05) increase in serum level of alpha-amylase and glycogen synthase in both non-diabetic extract treated and diabetic groups when compared to control. But these enzymes significantly (P<.05) reduced in diabetic extract and insulin treated groups when compared to the diabetic group. 

Conclusion: Therefore the hypoglycaemic potential of Terminalia catappa leaf extract could be attributed to its ability to reduce alpha-amylase level while lowered glycogen synthase might be secondary to reduction in blood glucose.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microalbuminuria in Women with Risk Factors for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Some Selected Hospitals in Sokoto, Nigeria

M. K. Dallatu, A. M. Kaoje, A. U. Adoke, J. A. Kehinde, J. M. Bunza

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v6i230097

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common metabolic abnormality which affects approximately 2-5% of pregnancies. Risk factors such as previous infants with macrosomia, strong family history of type 2 diabetes or GDM, poor glycaemic control and high pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) have been implicated in the development of GDM. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Microalbumnuria in women with risk factors for GDM and to estimate the levels of Urinary Microalbumin in these women. Fifty (50) pregnant women with risk factors for GDM and 50 controls (pregnant women without risk factors for GDM) were evaluated for Microalbuminuria. Microalbuminuria was estimated using Turbidimetric method, Random Plasma Glucose was estimated using Glucose oxidase method, serum Urea was estimated using Diacetyl Monoxime method, Creatinine was estimated using Jaffe Slot method and Albumin was estimated using Bromo Cresol Green method. The prevalence of Microalbuminuria in women with risk factors for GDM was 22%. Urinary microalbumin was significantly higher in the study subjects (56.36 ± 8.44 mg/L) than in the control (17.32 ± 4.5) mg/L. The mean ± standard error of mean of random plasma glucose in the study subjects was (5.84 ± 0.16) mmol/L and that of the control was (4.33 ± 0.14) mmol/L. The mean ± standard error of mean Serum Urea, Creatinine and Albumin were (4.1 ± 0.15) mmol/L, (0.70 ± 0.03) mg/dL, and (3.06 ± 0.05) g/dL respectively while that of the control was (3.47 ± 0.13) mmol/L, (0.63 ± 0.01) mg/dL and (2.78 ± 0.09) g/dL respectively. Obesity was strongly correlated to microalbuminuria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Serum Levels of Some Inflammatory Markers in Alloxan- Induced Diabetic Rats Treated with Aqueous Leaf Extract of Terminalia catappa and Exogenous Insulin

Ezekiel E. Ben, Asuquo E. Asuquo, D. U. Owu

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v6i230098

Background: Inflammation is said to be associated with hyperglycaemia and is implicated in the complications of diabetes.

Aim: This study was designed to investigate the level of some inflammatory markers in blood of diabetic rats administered with aqueous leaf extract of Terminalia catappa and exogenous insulin. 

Materials and Methods: Thirty five (35) Wistar rats were assigned to 5 groups of 7 animals each. Group 1 served as the control and received 5ml/kg body weight of distilled water and group 2 received orally, 130/kg body weight of aqueous leaf extract of Terminalia catappa. Groups 3 (diabetic only), 4 (diabetic + extract) and 5 (diabetic + insulin) were administered 150 mg/kg body weight of alloxan solution intraperitoneally to induce diabetes and blood glucose levels ≥200 mg/dl after 72 hours were considered diabetic. Then 5 ml/kg bodyweight of distilled water, 130 mg/kg body weight of Terminalia catappa leaf extract was given orally and 0.75U/kg body weight of insulin was administered subcutaneously to respective groups and the experiment lasted for 14 days.

Results: The results showed significant (P< 0.05) increase in serum levels of C-reactive protein, Interleukin-6 and blood fibrinogen in diabetic group compared to control. These inflammatory biomarkers significantly (P<0.05) reduced in diabetic group treated with extract and insulin. 

Conclusion: Therefore aqueous leaf extract of Terminalia catappa can reduce some inflammatory cytokines and ameliorate inflammation in diabetes similar to exogenous insulin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Retracted: Glucocorticoid-Induced, Morpho-Functional Alterations in Pancreatic Beta Cells of Wistar Rats

A. Aigbiremolen, M. A. Omoirri, O. A. Udi, S. E. Iloh, M. Ogbonnaya

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v6i230099

Background: Though prolonged use of glucocorticoids has been reported to promote adverse effects, traditionally, high-dose glucocorticoids have been implicated in immune-suppression following organ transplant with Cortisone being a well-known artificial glucocorticoid.

Objectives: This study investigated the histo-architectural and functional changes in pancreatic beta cells due to Cortisone administration.

Materials and Methods: Forty two (42) Wistar rats (140 – 200 kg) were assigned into seven groups of six (6) rats each with group A acting as a control. While groups B and C were respectively treated with 0.1 mg/kg and 0.3 mg/kg of Cortisone, groups D and E received 0.1 mg/kg and 0.3 mg/kg of Cortisone respectively plus 33 mg/kg of Ketoconazole; whereas, groups F and G were respectively given 0.1 mg/kg and 0.3 mg/kg of Cortisone alongside 150 mg/kg of Vitamin E each for twenty-eight (28) days. After 28 days of administration, rats were euthanized and blood samples collected for insulin assay. Pancreatic tissues were also harvested and observed for histo-morphological changes.

Results: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) found Cortisone to have significantly (p < .05) increased glucose level in a dose dependent manner. This was however attenuated following co-administration of Ketoconazole and Vitamin E as Ketoconazole showed more potency in this ameliorating effect. Also, Cortisone was observed to significantly decrease (in dose dependent fashion), pancreatic β-cell functions, with attenuating effect seen following co-administration of Ketoconazole.

Conclusion: It is recommended that caution is applied with the intake of glucocorticoids, especially in polypharmacy while treating certain ailments.