Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Crude Extract of Neem Bark on the Pancreas of Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats

A. J. Ajibade, E. O. James, B. D. Kehinde

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v6i330100

This study investigated the histological and serum enzymatic activities of Azadirachta indica, an Indian medicinal plant, on the pancreas in streptozotocin induced diabetic adult wstar rats.

Forty six adult wistar rats weighing 100 g to 220 g were randomly separated into four groups; Group A was regarded as the control , while group B was the diabetic group, C and diabetic – extract treated group. The control group received distilled water throughout the experiment; the remaining three groups were induced with streptozotocin intra-peritoneally to induced diabetes in the wistar rats. After some days, the animals were confirmed diabetic with the help of a measuring glucometer. Thereafter, group B diabetic rats remained untreated while Group C and D were treated with a low dose (250 mg/kg) of the crude neem bark extract and a high dose (500 mg/kg) of the extract respectively for 42 days. The aqueous neem bark extract was suspended in the drinking water of the treated animals for the period of 42 days. The body weights of the animals were weighed weekly and likewise the measurement of the blood glucose level was taken. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 42 days by cervical dislocation and the pancreas was removed and weighed immediately using sensitive weighing balance. The blood samples were collected from the sacrificed animals into EDTA bottle for serum enzymatic analysis. The organ pancreas was fixed in a 10% formol saline, processed and stained with Heamatoxylin and Eosin for general histological study.

The microscopic examination of diabetic group showed some degenerative and necrotic cells which made the pancreatic tissue distorted compared with the control that appeared normal. The diabetic group C and D rats treated with the extract showed ameliorative potentials of the extract with improvement in histo-architecture of the pancreatic tissue following recovery from damage. Analysis of the blood serum level showed that the aqueous neem bark extract has ameliorative effect on the enzymatic activities in serum of the treated rats. The alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase and alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly reduced (P<0.05) in the crude extract- treated animals compared with the untreated group B and control group A with significantly increased ( P<0.05 ) enzymatic activities in wistar rats in these groups. The antioxidant status was compromised in diabetic group B with significantly increased (P<0.05) LPO, reduced SOD and GSH compared with significantly reduced (P<0.05) LPO, increased (P<0.05) SOD and GSH in group A- control and Group C and D diabetic-extract treated Wistar rats.

Similarly, the blood glucose level increased significantly (P<0.05) in group B diabetic group compared with significantly reduced (P<0.05) blood glucose level in group A control as well as C and D extract-treated rats. The study concluded that crude extract of neem has ameliorative potentials on streptozotocin-induced diabetic wistar rats characterized by oxidative damage which reveals improvement in tissue morphology.

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicological Effects and Histopathological Alterations of Diazinon and Alpha Cypermethrin on Male Albino Rats

Maher A. Hammad, Reem M. Ziada

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v6i330101

Background: In Egypt, risk assessment of pesticides usage and pesticides misuse to protect plants and increase productivity connected with health hazards and pollution problems have been of public interest. Around the world three million acute poisoning cases from pesticide exposure annually report.

Aim of study was to investigate the histopathological alterations, biochemical and genotoxicity adverse effects of synthetic insecticides Diazinon (organophosphorus) and alpha cypermethrin (pyrethroid) which are using for agricultural and public health applications on male albino rats.

Methods: Twenty one albino rats were detached into control and two experimental groups. The experimental groups were treated with Diazinon (DIZ) and Alpha-cypermethrin (α-CYP) at sub-lethal dose (1/10 LD50 36.51 and 1.4 mg/kg body weight, respectively) by oral treatment for consecutively 28-days. The male albino rats in control treatment were put in similar surrounding conditions and treated with 5 ml /Kg tap water. Albino rats were killed after completing exposure of 28-days, liver and brain samples were dissected out for processing and sectioning examinations.

Results: The obtained results revealed that both tested insecticides induced oxidative damage as appearance by a significant raise in malondialdehyde (MDA) indicating lipid peroxidation and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage indicating genotoxicity in the liver and brain. Besides, increase in GSH level and decline in enzymatic antioxidants (GST, CAT, SOD) activities were observed in liver. Marked increase was noticed in GSH levels and GST activity in brain whereas CAT and SOD antioxidant enzymes activity were significantly reduced. Histopathological studies in brain and liver revealed multiplied focal hepatic necrosis, hydropic degeneration of the hepatocytes and portal infiltration inflammatory cells in the liver. Necrosis of neurons, neuronophagia, focal gliosis and cellular oedema, congestion of cerebral blood vessel were noticed in the brain of exposed rats.

Conclusion: The histopathological examination of brain and liver tissues and oxidative damage biomarkers showed adverse effects of DIZ or α-CYP insecticides at the tested dose (1/10 LD50).

Open Access Original Research Article

Codeine-mediated Haematoxicity, Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity in Male Albino Rats

Abiodun Olusoji Owoade, Abdulrahman Abdullateef, Adewale Adetutu, Adewale Adetutu, Olubukola Sinbad Olorunnisola

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v6i330102

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effects of codeine administration on some haematological and biochemical indices in rats.

Materials and Methods: Therapeutic dose (5 mg/kg/day), high dose (25 mg/kg/day) and extreme dose (50 mg/kg/day) of codeine were administered orally to rats for 28 days. Twenty-four hours after the last codeine administration, blood, liver and kidney were removed from the animals after an overnight fast and analysed for their haematological and biochemical parameters.

Results: Results obtained revealed that codeine administration significantly reduced the levels of white blood cells (WBC), red blood cell (RBC) and platelet count (PLT) and increased the levels of mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV)while it resulted in non-significant changes in other haematological parameters examined when compared with control rats. Codeine intake significantly increased plasma levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine and urea while its reduced total protein levels. Hepatic and renal thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were significantly increased by codeine administration while levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and reduced glutathione (GSH) were reduced.

Conclusions: This study confirmed the risk of increased oxidative stress, haematoxicity, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity due to codeine administration. Although codeine is reported to be effective in pain management, its toxicity should be kept in mind.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Disintegration Properties of Khaya senegalensis Gum Using Paracetamol Tablets

D. N. O. Kuevi, E. Ayertey, D. A. Bartels, F. W. A. Owusu

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v6i330104

Background: Disintegrants are essential in the formulation of solid dosage forms such as tablets because they aid in the release of the active drug for therapeutic action. Disintegrating agents such as starch are currently posing challenges such as tablet softening and slow disintegration. In the quest for alternatives that are cheaper, readily available and possessing same or better disintegrating property, Khaya senegalensis gum was considered. Currently, there is no available literature pertaining to its disintegrating property.

Objective: To investigate the disintegrating properties of Khaya senegalensis gum using paracetamol tablets.

Methods: K. senegalensis gum was obtained by making an incision on the stem bark of the mahogany tree. The dried purified K. senegalensis gum was employed in the formulation of granule I whiles Tragacanth gum was used in formulating granule II using the wet granulation technique. The flow properties of both granules were subsequently determined and compared. Paracetamol tablets were then produced with the formulated granules I and II. Friability, hardness, weight uniformity and disintegration testing were performed on the paracetamol tablets formulated with both granules.

Results: The results showed granule I had a better flowability with angle of repose 31.63°C, Hausner’s ratio 1.24 and Carr’s index 19.57 as compared to granule II with angle of repose 34.72°C, Hausner’s ratio 1.31 and Carr’s index 23.84. The study also revealed, paracetamol tablets formulated with granule I (K. senegalensis gum) passed the hardness test (6.57 Kg.f), disintegration time (2.44 min), weight uniformity test (2.2% standard deviation) and friability test (0.69%). Paracetamol tablets formulated with granule II (Tragacanth gum) also passed the hardness test (8.20 Kg.f), disintegration time (7.69 min), weight uniformity test (1.6% standard deviation) and friability test (0.86%).

Conclusion: Khaya senegalensis gum can therefore be explored as an alternative disintegrant in the formulation of paracetamol tablets for improved bioavailability.

Open Access Review Article

Factors of Increasing Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Saudi Arabia

Abdullah Almaliki

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v6i330103

Benign  prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the conditions known as prostate growth that accompanied by the lower urinary tract symptoms. There are many researches that were conducted in Saudi Arabia in order to identify the most important factors that are working in increasing this disease. Most of the conducted studies have stated that there is a strong relation between age, metabolic syndrome, inflammation, hormonal alterations, and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

According to the researches, age and inflammation are playing the vital role as the main factors that cause the increasing cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Data and results shown    in these studies demonstrate that ageing is the most significant risk factor for the development of BPH as 13% of men 40-49 of age versus 28% in subjects more than 70 year. It was also noticed that In ageing males, a significant tissue-remodeling process takes place within the prostate, especially in the transition zone. Another factors such as hormonal alternations and metabolic syndrome stated to be among the main factors of increasing the disease in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia.