Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Liver-fibrosis Using FIB-4 in HIV-patients on Anti-retroviral Therapy in Nigeria and CD4 and TNF as Predictors

Josephine Iruolagbe, Robinson Ohanador, Beatrice Amene-Imananagha, Audu Abubakar, Obetta Jessica, A. W. Obianemmie

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v6i430105

Introduction: Liver disease remains a severe complication in HIV patients despite advances in treatment with anti-retroviral drugs.

The aim of this study was to analyze and report the prevalence and predictors of liver fibrosis in Nigerian HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy and whether levels of TNF-α and CD4 count are associated with liver fibrosis as measured by FIB-4, we also try to explore the level of liver enzymes dysfunction using liver enzyme biomarkers, Alanine transaminase (ALT), Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and categorizing participants using gender (male, female) and age to ascertain if gender and age will be associated with liver fibrosis in Nigerian HIV-infected patients) on Anti-retroviral (ARV) drugs in university of port Harcourt teaching hospital.

Materials and Methods: A hospital-based study was conducted with a sample of 210 patients who were tested using randomized selection. Data on patients’ age and gender were collected, and blood samples were obtained for CD4, TNF, and LFT profiles. Extent of liver fibrosis was determined using the FIB-4, a non-invasive measuring index, to determine the presence and extent of fibrosis by categorizing as follows: FIB-4 value >3.25 as a proxy for advanced or severe  fibrosis, FIB-4 value between 1.45 and 3.25 in which fibrosis status is considered as significant fibrosis; FIB-4 value<1.45 considered as no fibrosis or absence of significant fibrosis, FIB-4=[age×AST (IU/liter)/platelet count (109/liter)×ALT (IU/liter)1/2].

Results: The prevalence of liver fibrosis reported was 21% was a slight male dominance in the prevalence ratio. Liver fibrosis correlated negatively with lower CD4 counts and elevated liver function biomarkers and TNF-alpha.

Conclusion: The prevalence of liver fibrosis is high from this study. Increasing in age with elevated liver function biomarkers, TNF-alpha and reduced CD4 counts can be considered as predictors for liver fibrosis. Males are more likely to be affected than females.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical, Antibacterial and Toxicity Study of Leaf Extracts of Vernonia amygdalina, Delile on Salmonella Species

A. A. Farouq, G. D. Muomara, A. M. Magashi, S. M. Jodi, M. K. Nata’ala, K. B. Habibu

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v6i430106

Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the bioactive compounds, toxicity and anti-bacterial activities of leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina.

Methodology: The phytochemical analysis of Vernonia amygdalina to detect the presence of bioactive compounds (oxalate, tannins, saponins, flavonoid, cardiac glycoside, alkaloids, steroid, balsams, essential oil and saponin glycoside) was performed using standard methods. The antibacterial activity of the leaf extracts was determined using agar well diffusion method against clinical isolates of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi. The toxicity testing was carried out with albino rats using standard method.

Results: Different secondary metabolites were found to be present in the leaf extracts after the phytochemical screening. They include tannins, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, glycosides, steroid, saponin glycoside, volatile oil and Balsams. Highest zone of inhibition of 10.0 mm and 20.0 mm was recorded against S. typhi and S. paratyphi aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaves respectively. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of 100 mg/ml of the aqueous extract was recorded against S. typhi and S. paratyphi. A MIC of 25 mg/ml of the ethanolic extract was recorded against S. typhi and S. paratyphi. The acute toxicity tests reveal no occurrence of death after 2 weeks of administering 5000 mg/kg body weight of the extracts to the albino rats.

Conclusion: The results revealed promising potentials of the leaves of V. amygdalina in the treatment of infectious diseases, due to its low toxicity. However, further studies need to be conducted to isolate and characterize the active metabolites present in the leaves.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Antimicrobial Activity of Various Extracts of the Stem Justicia gendarussa

Dhanapal Venkatachalam, Akhib Rahman, Basil Sunny, Jensy Jacob, Nikhil Kuriyan, Reshma Raman, Ria Vaniapurackal

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v6i430107

Objective: The present study was designed to check in-vitro efficacy of Antibacterial and antifungal activity of aqueous and hexane extracts of stem of Justicia gendarussa against selected bacterial and fungal strains. Justicia gendarussa, belonging to the family Acanthaceae, commonly known as ‘‘vatham kolli’ was used in treatment of bronchitis, inflammation, eye diseases, ear ache, vaginal discharges, rheumatism, dysentery, eczema and jaundice.

Methodology: Hexane and aqueous extracts of Justicia gendarussa was used for antimicrobial screening. Antibacterial activity was tested against pathogenic bacterial strains Eschericha coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Also antifungal activity was tested against one human pathogenic fungal strain i.e. Candida albicans. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of Justicia gendarussa extract was carried out by using disc diffusion method.

Results: Aqueous extract of Justicia gendarussa showed the largest zone of inhibition (5mm) against Eschericha coli, at 50µgm/ml and 3mmzone of inhibition against S. aures, at 50µgm/ml. Hexane extract does not   showing activity against to human pathogenic E. coli and S. aures, at 50µgm/ml. Aqueous extract has shown more potent antibacterial activity against Eschericha coli. Aqueous extract was found to be more effective against human pathogenic fungus Candida albicuns than hexane extract and standard drug. The zone of inhibition of Aqueous extract was 11mm and the zone of inhibition of hexane extract was7mm and standard only 2mm.The phytochemical screening demonstrated the presence of different types of compounds like terpenoids, tannins, and flavonoids which may contribute for the anti-microbial action of this plant.

Conclusions: These findings provide scientific evidence of traditional use of Justicia gendarussa and also indicate the potential of this plant for the development of antimicrobial agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Combined Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Annona muricata and Artocarpus heterophyllus on Reproductive Parameters of Type 2 Diabetic Wistar Albino Rats

F. C. Anacletus, C. L. Onuah, K. T. Nwauche

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v6i430108

Aim: The aim of this research is to study the combined effects of the ethanolic leaf extracts of Annona muricata and Artocarpus heterophyllus on the reproductive parameters of type II diabetic wistar albino rats.

Materials and Methods: Fifty-six (56) male wistar albino rats were induced with Type II diabetes mellitus using high fat diet and 35 mg/kg body weight streptozotocin (HFD-STZ).

Results: The result obtained showed a decreased testosterone level 0.78±.06 ng/ml on the diabetic group while the non-diabetic group had testosterone level of 1.90±.09 ng/ml. Treatment with combined ethanol leaf extract of A. muricata and A. heterophyllus led to a significant (p≤0.05) increase in the testosterone level of the treated groups. The motility, viability and the sperm density were also normalised in the treated groups.The result obtained from the present research showed that combined ethanolic leaf extracts of A. muricata and A. heterophyllus has ameliorative effect of the reproductive parameters of type II diabetic male wistar albino rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pytochemical Characterization, Evaluation of the Anti-diabetic Activity and Acute Toxicity of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) Seed Oil in Wistar Rat Models

Bezejea Nkeng-Asong, Tembe Estella Fokunang, Njinkio Nono Borgia, Mbong Grace, Ngameni Bathelemy, Tabi Omgba Yves, Ngudjoe Ervrard Marcel, Ndikum Valentine Nchafor, Ngadjui Bonaventure Tchaleu, Fokunang Charles Ntungwen

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v6i430109

Aim: Azadirachta indica A. Juss commonly called ‘Indian Lilac’ or ‘Margosa’ is used in the South West region of Cameroon to treat malaria, typhoid, intestinal worms and diabetes, and as mosquito repellent. Diabetes, a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases, is associated with long term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. This study was designed to determine the phytochemical constituents and to investigate the anti-diabetic property of Azadirachta indica A. Juss seed oil obtained from the Far North region of Cameroon in alloxan induced diabetic Wistar rats.

Method: An in vivo experimental study was conducted in the laboratory for preclinical animal studies and pharmaco-toxicology research, of FMBS, UY1 Cameroon. A study population of 135 albino Wistar rats with average mass 100 ± 20g was used. The phytochemical screening of the seed oil used was done using the GC-MS technique. The antihyperglycemic property of the oil was evaluated after oral glucose hyperglycemia induction, using 2g/kg body mass of glucose. The anti-diabetic property of the oil was evaluated over a period of 28 days, and blood glucose concentration after diabetes induction using alloxan solution in citrate buffer. The oral acute toxicity profile of the oil was evaluated over a period of 14 days following oral single dose 3 mL/100g administration of neem oil.

Results: Physico-chemical results showed that the oil was composed mainly of five fatty acides (oleic acid (30-55%) being the most abundant and linoleic acid (11-26%) least abundant) and nineteen biochemicals with the three most abundant being: nonacosane (20.6575%), hentriacontane (14.1515%) and 2-methylbenzaldehyde (11.8674%). The oil was antihyperglycemic and maximum effect observed at 1mL/100g body mass, and at t=20minutes, compared to 0.5 mL and 1.5 mL.

Conclusion: This study showed that neem oil have a promising preventive diabetic properties. The oil also proved to be antidiabetic at the doses of 0.5 mL, 1 mL and 1.5 mL per 100g body mass, with maximum effect observed with neem oil at 1ml/100g. Acute toxicity results showed no lethality at the maximum standard toxicity range of 2000mg/kg body weight.