Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Phytochemical Content and Antioxidant Potential of Ocimum gratissimum and Telfairia occidentalis Leaves

A. I. Airaodion, A. H. Ibrahim, U. Ogbuagu, E. O. Ogbuagu, O. O. Awosanya, J. D. Akinmolayan, O. C. Njoku, O. O. Obajimi, A. R. Adeniji, O. A. Adekale

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v7i130110

Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the phytochemical content and antioxidant potential of Ocimum gratissimum and Telfairia occidentalis leaves.

Study Design: This study was made to fit a one-way Analysis of Variance.

Place and Duration of Study: This research was carried out in the Department of Premedical Science, Educational Advancement Centre, Ibadan and Pharmaceutical Laboratory of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria between January and June, 2018.

Methods: Both plants were purchased from Bodija market in Ibadan, Nigeria. The leaves were removed from the stem and washed with running water to remove contaminants. It was oven dried at 37˚C and milled into powder and extracted with ethanol. The qualitative and quantitative analyses of the phytochemical content as well as antioxidant potential were investigated.

Results: The result showed that O. gratissimum is significantly higher in flavonoids content but lower in alkaloids when compared with those of T. occidentalis at P<0.05. No significant difference was observed in the concentrations of saponin, tannin, total phenolics and phytic acid in O. gratissimum when compared with those of T. occidentalis respectively at P<0.05. Antioxidant investigation showed that O. gratissimum is higher in ferric-ion reducing power but lower in ascorbic acid when compared with T. occidentalis respectively at P<0.05. The percentage inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate radical scavenging potential was observed to decrease with decreasing concentration for both plants but that of O. gratissimum was lower when compared with that of T. occidentalis respectively.

Conclusion: This pharmacological study is a useful tool for further drug development from the natural plant products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of the Antibacterial Effects of Honey with Standard Antibiotic on Bacterial Isolates from Wound Infection

N. M. Bunza, A. S. Kumurya, A. A. Isah, B. O. Abdul Azeez, F. Nafiu

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v7i130111

Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the antibacterial activities of the Honey against Ciprofloxacin on four bacterial isolates from a wound.

Study Design: It is a cross sectional comparative and observational study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital (UDUTH), Sokoto State, Nigeria between July 2017 and October 2017.

Methodology: One hundred and one (101) bacterial wound isolates were collected and identified using the standard microbiological methods of Gram staining and biochemical test. The activity patterns of the Honey concentrations and the standard antibiotic were determined using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and Punched Holes techniques. Similarly, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of the Honey were determined using Macrobroth dilution technique.

Results: Out of 101 isolates collected and identified, 33(32.7%) were Staphylococcus aureus, 29(28.7%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 21(20.8%) Escherichia coli and 18(17.8%) Proteus mirabilis. Antibacterial activity of honey was observed at 100% and 50% concentrations for S. aureus (10.7±0.13 mm and 8.4±0.16 mm), P. aeruginosa, (11.0±0.45 mm and 7.6±0.26 mm) and E. coli, (11.1±0.61 mm and 7.5±0.55 mm) respectively. Comparison of the inhibitory zone diameters showed that Ciprofloxacin (30.65±0.37 mm) had higher antibacterial activity than the raw honey (10.45±0.51 mm).

The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) of crude honey on S. aureus was 5%, P. aeruginosa 50%, E. coli 20%, and P. mirabilis 100%, while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of crude honey on S. aureus was 50%, P. aeruginosa 100%, E. coli 100%, and P. mirabilis was resistant.

Conclusion: The result obtained from this study established that honey possessed antibacterial activity at 50% and 100% concentrations against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and E. coli, which indicates that development of inhibition zones, depends on the concentration of the honey used as well as the nature of the tested pathogen. The findings also revealed that ciprofloxacin has higher antimicrobial activity than the type of honey used in this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of the Hyperglycemic Control of M. oleifera Leaves Aqueous Extract and Glibenclamide Tablets in Alloxan Monohydrate Induced Diabetic Rats

Josephine N. Kasolo, Agnes Namaganda, Joshua Nfambi, Ivan Kimuli, Haruna Muwonge, Isaac Okullo

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v7i130112

Introduction: Diabetes being one of the commonest non-communicable diseases worldwide has no cure. The available hypoglycemic drugs are costly, and have associated long-term side effects.  M. oleifera leaves are used in many countries in Africa and Asia to treat diabetes. The study compared the hyperglycemic control of M. oleifera leaves aqueous extract and Glibenclamide tablet in alloxan monohydrate induced diabetic rats.

Methods: Twenty-four female Wistar albino rats, made diabetic using alloxan monohydrate, received either M. oleifera extract, glibenclamide or distilled water were delivered intragastric. The mean body weight and mean fasting blood sugar were measured over a period of 28 days. 

Results: Rats that received distilled water had a mean fasting blood sugar of 329.3+44.9 mg/dl at the beginning, which increased to 448.0+189.9 mg/dl on day 14; all   the rats were dead by day 21. The rats that received M. oleifera had blood sugar 443.4+134.7 mg/dl at the beginning, dropped to 166.5+162.79 mg/dl by day 14, and to 88.7+41.0 mg/dl by day 28. Rats that received glibenclamide had blood sugar 517.6+139.3mg/dl at the beginning, dropped to 209.0+201.9 mg/dl on day 14, and to 89.7+42.85 mg/dl on day 28.  The blood sugar of the M. oleifera and glibenclamide groups reached normal level by day 21 and remained within the normal range up to day 28. Conclusion: Moringa oleifera leaves aqueous extract has similar pattern to glibenclamide tablet in causing hypoglycemia to alloxan monohydrate induced diabetic rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pyridinium Crosslinks (Pyd) in the Urine is Associated with Stunting in Neonates

Aslis Wirda Hayati, Alkausyari Aziz, Siti Rohaiza Ahmad, Sri Widia Ningsih

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v7i130113

Aims: The aim of the research is to evaluate the reliability of bone resorption biomarkers called Pyridinium Crosslinks (Pyd) in the urine of the neonates as an evaluation to bone growth of the neonate, as an indicator of stunting.

Study Design:  A cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Andini Mothers and Children Hospital (Pekanbaru, Indonesia). Duration of the study was between, August until September 2014.

Methodology: Subjects of study were 35 healthy neonates. Subjects were recruited at the first 3 days of life.  Body length gauges, digital weighting scale, family socioeconomic questionnaires and Pyd kit were used to collect the data.  Differences in the mean of the research variables were tested using an Independent t-test. 

Results: Results showed that there were significant differences (p<0.01) in terms of height for age and Pyd in the urine of stunted (body length <48 cm) versus normal (body length ≥48 cm) neonates.  The contents of Pyd in the urine of stunted neonates were 982.9±61.6 and normal neonates was 594.1±266.1 nmol/mmol.

Conclusion: Therefore, there is a possible association between height for age and Pyd in the urine as a potential early indicators to identify stunted and normal neonates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Assessment of Crude and Fractionated Extracts of Vernonia amygdalina Leaf against Multiple Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria of Wound Infection

A. K. Onifade, O. O. Agunloye

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v7i130114

This study was conducted to determine the antibacterial effect of crude and fractionated extracts of leaves of Vernonia amygdalina against multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria isolate from wounds. The bacteria isolates obtained are: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Streptococcus pyogene; they were confirmed standard microbiological techniques. Extracts were prepared from the leaf of the plant using ethanol, chloroform, cold water and hot water. The antibacterial activities of the crude extracts were assayed using the agar well diffusion methods. Multiple antibiotic resistant of the isolates was confirmed in the six (6) isolates. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenols and saponins. All the extract showed varying degrees of activities depending on the extract concentration and the extract solvent. Generally, ethanol rated best as the extraction solvent which was able to inhibit all isolates except K. pneumoniae and P. mirabilis, and inhibits S. aureus at 50 mg/ml with zones 6.997±0.003.  The antibacterial efficacy of the extract increases with a corresponding increase in the extract concentration. The MBC values ranged from 50 - 400 mg/mL for all the extraction solvent, and this is very important for people who depend on the plant for their health care needs. Fra 1, 6, and 10 of the column fractions were able to inhibit with 8.997  ± 0.008 mm, 8.993 ± 0.012 mm and 9.007 ± 0.000 mm respectively. The functional groups are Alkene, alkane group, alkyl halides, N-H bend of amides and Alcohol. The leaf of Vernonia amgydalina can be used as a raw material for the production of new antibiotic to control multiple resistant bacteria.