Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Combined Crude Extract of Curcuma longa and Moringa oleifera in the Prevention of Peptic Ulcer in Albino Rats

Augustine I. Airaodion, Olukunle A. Adekale, Edith O. Airaodion, Emmanuel O. Ogbuagu, Uloaku Ogbuagu, Etinosa U. Osemwowa

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v7i230115

Aim: This study is aimed at investigating the prophylactic efficacy of combined extract of Curcuma longa and Moringa oleifera leaf against indomethacin–induced ulcer in albino rats.

Place and Duration of Study: This research was carried out in Ibadan Nigeria between November 2017 and January, 2018.

Methods: Fifty (50) healthy male albino rats with body weights between 150 and 200 g were used for this study. They were randomly divided into ten groups of five rats each. Group I was administered omeprazole for seven days, group II was administered Moringa oleifera leaf solution for seven days, group III was administered Curcuma longa solution for seven days, group IV was administered Curcuma longa + Moringa oleifera leaf solution for seven days and group V was administered distilled water for seven days. This group served as the control group. Groups VI, VII, VIII, IX and X were treated similarly as groups I, II, III, IV and V respectively but were treated for fourteen days. At the end of the administration, the animals were fasted for 18 hours and 50 mg/kg of indomethacin was administered orally (p.o) to the rats. After 8 hours of indomethacin administration, the animals were anesthetized by chloroform anesthesia and sacrificed and the stomach removed and opened along the greater curvature, rinsed with copious volume of normal saline and pinned on a board to expose the stomach clearly.

Results: Animals treated with combined extracts of Curcuma longa + Moringa oleifera leaf showed significantly increased ulcer inhibition (71.64%, 75.57%) when compared with those of Curcuma longa (44.10%, 46.53%) and Moringa oleifera leaf (53.43%, 57.58) respectively but showed no significant difference when compared with that of omeprazole (72.60%, 74.29%), the reference drug after 7 and 14 days pre-treatment respectively.

Conclusion: The combined extract has a greater prophylactic efficacy against indomethacin-induced ulcer than individual extracts and gave similar result as omeprazole. The combined extract of Curcuma longa + Moringa oleifera leaf could be used as a prophylaxis against peptic ulcer disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Nebulised Tobramycin in Cystic Fibrosis Management: A Systematic Review

G. T. Olowe

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v7i230116

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a progressive clinical condition associated with decreased functionality of glands that produce mucus, sweat, and intestinal secretions. CF is one of the most common recessive genetic diseases that affect all ethnic groups without any known identified cure, having variations in the severity of symptoms. In the treatment and management of CF, The choice and routes of administration of antibiotics taken is important in assessing effectiveness at different populations. In the light of this, current study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of Nebulised Tobramycin (NT) in the treatment of mild to moderate CF within 8years study period. Study was achieved by searching known repositories and electronic databases of various sources. Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) that compares patients treated on NT and placebo were selected, including six (6) RCTs comprising 609 participants to the review. Study noticed significant clinical and methodological heterogeneity among trials with NT, varying over a total of 8years study period. Also, there were recorded evidences of improvement in pulmonary function in most of the patients, following completion of the study. This review revealed inconclusive evidence in the efficacy of NT in the treatment of mild to moderate CF. It is thus clear, that long term use of NT in mild to moderate CF can provide sustained improvements in pulmonary functions.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Susceptibility Pattern of Major Gram Negative Isolates to Selected Antimicrobial Agents

Shalini Gupta, Pankaj Mandale

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v7i230117

Background: The choice of choosing right anti-microbial therapy in hospitals depends on the knowledge of local anti-microbial susceptibility profile. This retrospective study was conducted to assess the in vitro susceptibility pattern of different pathogen isolates to various antibiotics including Cefepime-Amikacin-Antibiotic resistant breakers (ARBs)* in various hospitals across the Jaipur City.

Methods: To characterize the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of different isolates from various hospitals across the Jaipur City, a retrospective, observational analysis was done for antibiogram data. A total of 1201 Gram negative isolates collected during the period from January 2017 to December 2017 were included in the study. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was done in accordance with the recommendations of Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guidelines.

Results: Of the total 1201 Gram negative isolates included in this study, 51.6% were from wounds and pus specimens, 40.1% were from respiratory and 8.2% from blood. P. aeruginosa (49.7%) was the most frequently isolated pathogen distantly followed by A. baumannii (21.6%), K. pneumoniae (16.6%) and E. coli (12.1%). The highest susceptibility was reported to polymyxins (100%) including Colistin and Polymyxin B, among all the tested bacteria’s and system wise. Among all the antibiotic tested, (Cefepime-Amikacin-ARBs*) sensitivity ranged for 87.9% to 52% on pathogens (E. coli, K. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa) tested from samples of skin and soft tissue, respiratory tract, blood stream, followed by Meropenem ranged for 78.4% to 55% on pathogens (E. coli, K. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa), followed by ceftazidime-tazobactam ranged for 82.7% to 58% on pathogens (E. coli, K. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa) and 22.7% sensitive for A. baumannii to Cefoperazone sulbactam. Based on pathogen type, E. coli exhibited highest overall susceptibility and the lowest was reported by A. baumannii. The susceptibility of A. baumannii ranged from 1-26% to all the tested antibiotics except polymyxins with 100% susceptibility.

Conclusions: This in vitro susceptibility data suggests that Cefepime-Amikacin-ARBs* can serve as important therapeutic option for the treatment of various resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections to relieve the excess pressure on last resort antibiotics, carbapenems and other drugs including Colistin and polymyxin B. Cefepime-Amikacin-ARBs*on the basis of antimicrobial susceptibility data can be considered as an effective therapeutic option for carbapenems in treating gram negative bacterial infections, and could be considered as a broad spectrum antibiotic sparer’s like carbapenem, colistin and Polymyxin B.

Open Access Original Research Article

Direct Compression and in vitro Release of Chlorpheniramine Maleate from Tablets Containing Fluid Bed Dried and Lyophilized Microcrystalline Cellulose Derived from Cocos nucifera

Nkemakolam Nwachukwu, Kenneth Chinedu Ugoeze, Ogbonna Okorie, Sabinus Ifeanyi Ofoefule

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v7i230118

Aims: To investigate the mechanical and in vitro release properties of chlorpheniramine maleate (CM) tablets formulated with fluid bed dried and lyophilized microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) derived from the fruit husk of Cocos nucifera (CN).

Study Design: Experimental design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Industrial Pharmacy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka from January, 2015 to December, 2016.

Methods: Chips of matured (CN) fruit husk were de-lignified by soda treatment methods to obtain alpha cellulose which was hydrolyzed with mineral acid (Hydrochloric acid) to obtain CN-MCC. A portion of the damp CN-MCC was fluid bed dried at 60°C for 2 h (coded MCCF-Cocos) and the remaining CN-MCC was lyophilized at -45°C for 3 h (coded MCCL-Cocos). The MCC powders were blended with 20, 30 and 40% w/w CM and directly compressed at 9.81 mega Pascal (mPa). The CM tablets containing MCCF-Cocos (coded CM-CF) and MCCL-Cocos (coded CM-CL) were evaluated using standard methods.

Results: Both batches had tablets with minimal weight variation; CM-CL tablets were mechanically stronger (P = .037) and less friable than CM-CF tablets.  CM-CL tablets took a longer time to disintegrate than CM-CF tablets. Comparatively, CM tablets containing AVC-102 (coded CM-AV) were mechanically stronger, less friable and had a longer disintegration time than CM-CL and CM-CF tablets. The dilution potential of CM-AV was greater than CM-CL and CM-CF tablets. CM release was faster in CM-CF. There was more than 80 % release of CM from CM-CF, CM-CL and CM-AV tablets within 30 min. Although CM-CL tablets were mechanically stronger than CM-CF, the data for all batches of the tablets obtained fell within the British Pharmacopoeia set limits for uncoated tablets.

Conclusion: Chlorpheniramine maleate tablets containing fluid bed dried and lyophilized microcrystalline cellulose obtained from C. nucifera had good mechanical and in vitro release properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Moringa oleifera Leaves Methanolic Extract on Alloxan- Induced Diabetic Albino Rats

C. Udeogu, C. C. Ejiofor, A. Nwakulite

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v7i230119

Moringa oleifera, popularly known as “miracle tree” belongs to the family, Moringaceae. It is a medicinal plant in which the leaves are the most nutritious part, being a significant source of vitamins and protein among others. This study was conceived and designed based on the gaps in the research that has been performed and what is known about the plant. In this study, the effect of Moringa oleifera leaves extract on alloxan induced diabetes in Wistar albino rats was investigated. A total of forty five (45) rats were acclimatized for a period of two weeks, then randomly divided into five (5) groups (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5) of  nine (9) rats each and fed with standard feed and water. Group 1 which is the control was fed with just water and standard feed while Hyperglycemia was induced in groups 2, 3, 4, & 5 intra-peritoneally after an over-night fasting using alloxan at a concentration of 130 mg/kg b.w. and allowed for 48hours which resulted in a high blood glucose level between 300 mg/dl and 600 mg/dl. Group 2 was not given any treatment while Groups 3, 4, & 5 were treated with doses 100 mg/kg b.w., 200 mg/kg bw, and 400 mg/kgbw of Moringa oleifera leaf extract respectively for a period of four weeks. A glucometer was used to check the blood glucose level of the animals before and after treatment. The results of Groups 3, 4, & 5 (172.0±4.75 mg/dl, 142.9±47.25 mg/dl, 70.6±24.46 mg/dl respectively) showed a significant decrease (p< 0.05) in blood glucose level of the induced rats when compared with Group 2 (316±47.17 mg/dl) which was induced only alloxan. It can therefore be concluded that this study has shown that the extract of Moringa oleifera leaves offers an anti-diabetic effect in Wistar albino rats.