Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile and Prevalence Pattern of Gram Negative Pathogens in Tertiary Care Hospital

Pradnya Joshi, Z. A. Khan, Reema Tandle, Amol Harshe, Amruta Bhutada, Sunita Gogavale

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v7i430125

Background and Objective: Large amounts of antibiotics consumed by the human population have resulted in the culmination of pathogenic bacteria resistant to multiple drugs. The resistance profile of pathogens differ from one geographical location to another and keeps on changing continuously.

Methods: A retrospective observational analysis of antibiogram data was performed to characterize the susceptibility pattern of different pathogen isolates from various clinical sources. A total of 213 clinical isolates identified from the period June 2015 to June 2016 were included in the study.

Results: Of the 213 Gram-negative isolates, 36.6% were from urine, 23.9% from respiratory specimens, 11.74% from blood, 10.33% from pus whereas 17.37% were from other sources. E. coli (42.25%) was most predominant pathogen isolated followed by K. pnuemoniae. (25.35%) and Pseudomonas spp. (15.96%) while other Gram-negative pathogens contributed 16.4%.  Antibiogram analysis has shown CSE-1034 as the most susceptible drug exhibiting 91.1%, 77.8%, 82.4% and 82.3% susceptibility against E. coli, K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa. Among carbapenems, both meropenem and imipenem-Cilastin were most effective against E. coli. Meropenem was least effective against K. pneumoniae (50%) and imipenem against P. aeruginosa (32.35%). Like imipenem, Piperacillin-Tazobactam was highest effective against E. coli (20%) and lowest against P. aeruginosa (26.47%).

Conclusion: Susceptibility profile indicates CSE-1034 (a novel antibiotic resistance breaker) as the most effective drug among all the classes of antibiotics against the Gram-negative pathogens. A high resistance to piperacillin-tazobactam and penems, advocates use of CSE-1034 as empiric drug of choice in the treatment of bacterial infectious diseases where the pathogen isolates are suspected resistant towards β-lactam and β-lactamase inhibitor combinations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical and Molecular Studies on the Role of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Extract in Reducing Liver and Kidney Toxicity Due to Etoposide in Male Rats

Majd Almakhatreh, Ezar Hafez, Ehab Tousson, Ahmed Masoud

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v7i430126

Aims: Etoposide (Vepesid) is chemotherapeutic drugs that inhibit topoisomerase II activity and long been used for treatment of human malignancies, where it is a semi-synthetic compound derived from the plant Podophyllum peltatum. The current study was designed to investigate the possible protective effect of rosemary extract against Etoposide -induced changes in liver and kidney functions, and DNA damage in rats.

Materials and Methods: A total of 50 male Wistar albino rats were divided randomly into four groups (1st group was control; 2nd group was treated with rosemary, 3rd group was received etoposide, and 4th & 5th groups was co- and post treated groups respectively).

Results: The administration of Etoposide revealed a significant increase in serum ALT, AST, ALP, creatinine, urea, potassium ions, chloride ions, and DNA damage. In contrast; a significant decrease in albumen, total proteins, sodium ions, and calcium ions were when compared with control group. This increased in ALT, AST, ALP, creatinine, urea, potassium ions, chloride ions, and DNA damage was reduced after administration of rosemary when co-treated with etoposide (G4), or post-treated after etoposide  (G5) for four weeks with lowest damage in G4. Also, this decreased in albumen, total proteins, sodium ions, and calcium ions was increased after administration of rosemary when co-treated with etoposide (G4), or post-treated after etoposide (G5) for four weeks with lowest damage in G4.

Conclusion: It could be concluded that rosemary has a promising role and it worth to be considered as a natural substance for protective the liver and kidney toxicity induced by etoposide (Vepesid) chemotherapy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Effects of Aqueous Extract of Carica papaya Leaf on the Liver of Streptozotocin (STZ)-Induced Diabetic Adult Wistar Rats

A. J. Ajibade, P. B. Fakunle, T. J. Adetunji, B. D. Kehinde

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v7i430127

Carica papaya Linn. (Family: Caricaceae) is a perennial, herbaceous plant used traditionally among the Yoruba tribe of Nigeria for the treatment of various human and veterinary diseases including malaria, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, Jaundice, intestinal helminthiasis. Therefore, this study was designed to assess some of the effects of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaf on the liver of Streptozotocin(STZ)-induced diabetic adult wistar rats.

Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg STZ freshly dissolved in 0.1M Sodium Citrate at PH buffer at 4.5. Hyperglycemia was confirmed four days after injection by measuring the tail vein blood glucose level with an Accu-Check Sensor Comfort Glucometer (Roche, Mexico City). Only the animals with fasting blood glucose levels <200 mg/dl were considered diabetic. A total number of 48 adult wistar rats weighing between 100 -250 g of both sexes were used for this study. The rats were acclimatized to the experimental room having temperature of 25°C. Four groups were used for this study, group A served as the control which were fed with feeds and water ad libitum daily for six weeks and group B,C &D  were induced with 60 mg/kg of STZ after which were diagnosed of diabetes after 4 days of induction. Group B served as the diabetic control group and were fed with only feed and water ad libitum daily for six weeks whereas, group C and D were treated with different doses of C. papaya extract (1.5 and 3.0 mg/100 mL) as drinking water daily for six week and were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and the liver was removed and weighed before fixing in 10% formol saline for histological procedures.

The result showed a significant decrease in body weight of diabetic -induced rats (P<0.05) while the body weights  increased significantly (P<0.05) in diabetic induced rats treated  with 1.5 and 3.0 g/100 mL of the aqueous extract of C. Papaya leaves when the initial and final weights of the rats were compared at the end of treatment. However, the liver weights increased significantly (P<0.05) in diabetic induced rats when compared with the diabetic rats treated with extract. The aqueous extract of C. papaya (1.5 and 3.0 g/100 mL) significantly decreased (P<0.05) blood glucose levels in diabetic treated rats. There was significant increase in serum biomarker enzymes: ALT, AST and ALP in diabetic rats (Group B) at P<0.05 when compared with control rats (Group A). Conversely, biomarker hepatic enzymes: ALT, AST and ALP decreased significantly (P<0.05) in diabetic rats treated with 1.5 and 3.0 g/100 mL aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves when compared with both Group A and Group B. The histological section of the liver of diabetic rats treated with 3.0 g/100 mL aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves showed improvement in hepatic histo-architecture as the extract ameliorated hepatic morphological disruption occasioned by induced diabetes in wistar rats.

This study concluded that aqueous extract of C. papaya leaf ameliorated hepatic induced damage in the liver of Streptozotocin(STZ)-induced diabetic adult wistar rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Amitriptyline Induced Alterations in Liver and Kidney Functions and Structures in Male Rats

Fathy A. M. Atta, Ehab Tousson, Noha A. Dabour, Ahmed A. Massoud, Ahmed F. Hasan

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v7i430128

Aims: Depression is a mental health issue that starts most often in early adulthood and it is a common and recurrent disorder causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Amitriptyline is a tricyclic antidepressant that is known to inhibit the presynaptic reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine, and inhibitor of mitochondrial functions and induces apoptosis in several tissues. This study aims to identify the changes in liver and kidney structure and functions after treatment of male rats with Amitriptyline drugs.

Materials and Methods: A total of 20 male albino rats were randomly and equally divided into 2 groups (G1, control group that included animals that did not receive any treatment during the experimental period. G2, Amitriptyline (Tryptizol; El Kahira Pharm And Chem Ind Co) group in which rats were injected intraperitoneally with Amitriptyline (100 mg/kg body weight/daily) for four weeks).

Results: The current results revealed that; Amitriptyline treatments significantly (P <0.05) increased the levels of serum ALT, AST, ALP, urea, creatinine, sodium ions, chloride ions and liver  and kidney damages as compared to control. In contrast; a significant (P <0.05) decrease in albumin, and total protein, potassium ions and calcium ions in Amitriptyline group was reported when compared with control group.

Conclusion: Amitriptyline has many side effects on rat liver and kidney, it induced liver and kidney toxicity and tissue injury were it metabolized to nortriptyline which inhibits the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin almost equally. Amitriptyline inhibits the membrane pump mechanism responsible for uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin in adrenergic and serotonergic neurons.

Open Access Review Article

The Health Implication of Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) 0157:H7: A Review on Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome

Onengiyeofori Ibama, Edna O. Ibegbulem, Donatus Onwuli, Adline Ben-Chioma

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2019/v7i430129

Consumption of foods, water, vegetables, fruits, undercooked/ground/raw meat, unpasteurized milk or milk products contaminated with the bacterium strain Escherichia coli 0157:H7 has become a serious public health concern. This strain naturally inhabits the digestive tract of healthy cattle, and is released into the environment through the faeces of the animal. This strain cause haemorrhagic enterocolitis or gastroenteritis, and then haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). HUS is a disorder characterised by haemolytic anaemia, low platelet count and acute kidney failure, and this disorder is a consequence of the production and action of Shiga-like toxin produced mainly by this bacterial strain (accounting for 90 percent of all cases), and occurs mainly in children less than five (5) years of age, but also occurs in the elderly. After infection with this bacterial strain, the disorder begins with intestinal perforation and ulceration leading to bloody diarrhoea, and consequently acute kidney injury, thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia. In conjunction with clinical manifestations, several laboratory investigations (haematological, biochemical and microbiological assays) are implicated in the diagnosis of HUS. There is currently no specific treatment for HUS; however, supportive care (such as treatment of hypertension, fluid and electrolyte imbalance, haemodialysis, blood transfusion, etc) happens to be the only ameliorative measure for this disorder.