Open Access Original Research Article

Anticancer Effect of Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract on A2780 Ovarian Cancer Cell Line

Tolosa Daniel Angasa, Yinuo Hong, Ziqiang Ding, Xianfeng Ding

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2020/v9i130140

In this study we investigated anticancer effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on A2780 ovarian cancer cell line. The leave of Moringa oleifera were grinded into powder and the phytochemicals were extracted using 80% ethanol. For fractionation and partitioning process four kinds of solvents were used in order: Petroleum ether, Dichloromethane, Ethyl acetate and Water extract until the extract is colorless or lightened. For cell proliferation assay all samples were dissolved in DimethylSulfoxide. Anticancer effect of Moringa oleifera were tested on A2780 ovarian cell line with four different extracts using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. The final result showed that on Petroleum Ether, Dichloromethane and Ethyl Acetate extracts as the concentration increases from 1 µg/ml, 2 µg/ml, 3 µg/ml, 4 µg/ml inhibited A2780, despite that in water extracts when the concentration decreases the inhibitory effect increases, however, Dichloromethane Extract has higher anticancer effect on A2780 ovarian cancer cell line with insignificant cytotoxicity to the normal cell.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relation of Obesity and Hypertension among Chinese Community in Melaka, Malaysia–A Cross-sectional Study

Htay Lwin, Mila Nu Nu Htay, Htoo Htoo Kyaw Soe, Mra Aye, Adinegara Lutfi Abas, Khine Lynn Phyu, Soe Moe

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 23-29
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2020/v9i130143

Introduction: The main cause of overweight and obesity is the imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. Obesity is the abnormal accumulation of ≥20% of body fat, over the individual's ideal body weight. Obesity is diagnosed by measuring the weight in relation to the height of an individual, thereby determining or calculating the body mass index (BMI).

Methodology: This study is a cross-sectional study with the secondary data analysis of the health records of the patients who had attended the medical camps conducted in Melaka, Malaysia. All of the attendee’s body weight and height were measured. The blood pressure measurement was done according to the Clinical Practice Guidelines, Ministry of Health, Malaysia. Hypertension is defined as if the participant has systolic blood pressure (SBP) of > 140 mmHg and/ or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 90 mmHg or more. Some peoples were taking treatment of Hypertension.

Results: The mean SBP among females was 11.64 units and mean DBP was 5.29 units lower compared to male participants. With an increase in age, SBP is expected to increase by .29 units, provided other variables remain unchanged. Regarding to BMI, every unit increase in BMI, SBP increased by 1.99 units and DBP increased by .86 units provided other variables remain unchanged.

Conclusion: This study found that BMI is associated with SBP and DBP, which suggested that interventions for bodyweight management might be beneficial for the management of hypertension.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nephrotoxicity Assessment of Dr Iguedo Goko Cleanser® in Exposed Wistar Rats

Godswill J. Udom, Jude E. Okokon, John A. Udobang, Daniel N. Obot, Ikanna E. Asuquo

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 30-40
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2020/v9i130144

Aims: This study was designed to evaluate the toxicity concern of Dr Iguedo Goko Cleanser® on kidney function parameters and histoarchitecture of the kidneys of exposed Wistar rats.

Study Design: A 60-day subchronic toxicological assessment using animal model.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Nigeria, between March 2019 and July 2019.

Methodology: Acute toxicity study was conducted using the modified Lorke’s method. Thirty Wistar rats of both genders were randomly allotted to six groups (5/group) and orally-treated daily thus: Groups 1 and 4-Controls (distilled water, 10 mL/kg), Groups 2-3; 5-6 received the Polyherbal mixture (476.24; 158.75) mg/kg, respectively. On 62nd day, animals were euthanized under diethyl ether anaesthesia and sacrificed. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture for biochemical analysis. Eviscerated kidneys were weighed and fixed in 10% formalin for histopathological examination.

Results: Polyherbal mixture presented acute toxicity with an estimated LD50 of 1587.45 mg/kg (mouse, i.p). Results presented significant (P=.05) decreased blood urea nitrogen at all doses tested; elevated Na+ for high dose male (124.58±1.82) and female (122.77±0.00) rats compared to their respective controls (110.49±3.17/97.33±1.78) as well as increased creatinine levels for low dose male rats (145.83±7.45) compared to control (36.46±1.24). Histopathology of the kidneys revealed degrees of pathologies such as hyperplasic glomerular cells, occluding Bowman’s space, hyperaemia within the cortical tissue, widened proximal and distal convoluted tubules, hyperplasia of cortical tissue cells as well as hyperplasia of tubular and connective tissue cells.

Conclusion: Despite the popular claim that herbal remedies are completely natural, safe and devoid of toxicities whatsoever, the present day study suggest otherwise. Therefore, utmost caution and/or avoidance of the polyherbal mixture whenever possible, is strongly advised especially as its nephrotoxic potentials are not negligible.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Antiulcer Activity, of Ficus thonningii (Moraceae) Aqueous Fruits Extract in Wistar Rats

Uji Pius Uku, Tembe Estella Fokunang, Mbong Grace, Njinkio Nono Borgia, Ingrid Mogue, Ngameni Bathelemy, Ndikum Valentine Nchafor, John Dobgima Fonmboh, Andrew Banin Nyuki, Tabi Omgba Yves, Nguidjoe Ervrard Marcel, Ngadjui Bonaventure Tchaleu, Fokunang Charles Ntungwen

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 41-59
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2020/v9i130145

Introduction: The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that about 80% of the world’s population rely mostly on traditional medicine. Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) which results from an imbalance between stomach acid-pepsin and mucosal defense barriers is a chronic disease affecting up to 10% of the world’s population and represents 33% of gastroenterology consultations in Cameroon. The people in low medium incomecountries depend mostly on medicinal plants for primary healthcare since they can be accessed quickly and are affordable. Such plant is Ficus thonningii Blume, which is found abundantly in Africa and also in Cameroon. The objective of this study was to phytochemically screened the aqueous fruits extract of Ficus thonningii (AEFFt), and investigate their antiulcer activity.

Methods: The aqueous fruits extract was phytochemically screened following standard qualitative methods. Four in vitro tests to characterize antacid properties were carried out. Ulcers were induced using an ethanol and hydrochloric acid (HCl/EtOH) solution. Ulcer preventive (anti-ulcer) activity was investigated in 6 different treatment groups: 2 conventional drugs (Maalox 100 mg/kg, Omeprazole 20 mg/kg), three doses of AEFFt at (125 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, & 500 mg/Kg), and a vehicle treatment group (administered only the ulcerogenic agent). Histological analysis of the stomachs was carried out.

Results: The phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract of fruits of F. thonningii showed the presence of flavonoids, mucilages, saponins, gallic tannins, betacyanins, and total polyphenols. Following the in vitro tests, we obtained a value of 7.4mEq for acid neutralization capacity (ANC) for the extract, and a pH of 4.2 for the extract following FDA test. For the in vivo tests, the aqueous extract of fruits of F. thonningii (AEFFt) showed a dose-dependent increase ulcer-preventive (gastroprotective) activity with the three treatment aqueous extracts doses.

Conclusion: The study showed that, the aqueous extract of fruits of Ficus thonningii showed a dose-dependent ulcer-preventive activity that could be accounted for by the presence of bioactive phytochemicals like polyphenols (flavonoids, tannins).

Open Access Review Article

Hydroxicloroquine, What is the Role of the Drug in the Treatment of COVID-19? A Review

Eliza Miranda Ramos, Francisco José Mendes dos Reis, Gilberto Gonçalves Facco, Emerson Luiz Lima Araújo, Igor Domingos de Souza, Glícia Caroline Andrade Ramos, Alessandro Carvalho da Fonseca, Iara Barbosa Ramos, Hugo Vieira Ramos, Valter Aragão do Nascimento

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 7-22
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2020/v9i130142

Introduction: Coronaviruses (COVID-19) is an emerging virus with severe respiratory infection. Despite several efforts, so far there is no medicine to fight it and use it as the ideal treatment. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to describe the role of hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 and thus present its benefits in the respective doses.

Methodology: The methodology used was the systematic review with meta-analysis.

Results: From the reading of the 75 papers found, only three articles were excluded for not presenting a complete abstract, 65 were excluded for not presenting eligibility according to the inclusion criteria, 01 was excluded for reaching a methodological score below 20 points in Down and Black (1998) and ending the process of inclusion of the articles, only 06 articles were included and included 894 patients.

Conclusion: Despite the small number of published articles, this meta-analysis found that the use of hydroxychloroquine as an adjunct therapy in the follow-up of COVID-19 in patients with mild to severe clinical signs brings benefits and avoids hospitalization in intensive care.