Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Aqueous Ethanol Stem Extract of Entada africana Guill. Et Perrott. on Castor Oil and Magnesium Sulphate-Induced Diarrhoea Models in Mice

Abubakar Bilyamini Mu’azu, Muhammad Ibrahim Usman

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2020/v9i230146

This study investigated the phytochemical, elemental analysis, acute toxicity study of aqueous ethanol stem bark extract of Entada africana, as well as its antidiarrhoeal activity in mice and its effects on isolated rabbit jejunum. The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. Elemental analysis of the extract showed the presence of magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and sodium (Na) while acute toxicity study revealed intraperitoneal median lethal dose (LD50) values for the extract to be 774.6 mg/kg body weight. The antidiarrheal effect of the extract was studied using castor-oil and magnesium sulphate induced diarrhoeal models (dropping test) and gastrointestinal transit test in mice. The result showed that the extract produced a dose-dependent protection against diarrhoea induced by castor oil and magnesium sulfate, with the highest protection (80 and 100%), obtained at 100 and 200 mg/kg. The extract significantly (p≤0.01) reduced the small intestinal transit of charcoal meal in mice at all doses tested. The extract (0.4-3.2 mg/ml) produced a concentration dependent relaxation of the rabbit jejunum, and the effects were blocked by propranolol (0.04 and 0.64 μg/ml). The results of this study showed that the extract contain pharmacologically active substance with antidiarrhoeal properties mediated through inhibition of hyper secretion and reduced gastrointestinal motility. These properties may explain the rationale for use of it’s stem bark as antidiarrhoeal remedy in traditional medicine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Acid Neutralizing Capacity of Selected Antacid Suspensions Available in the Ghanaian Market

Cedric Dzidzor Kodjo Amengor, Owusu Frederick William Akuffo, James Kwaning, Albara Halidu Iddrisu, Alexander Ohemeng, Darinple Acquah Acheampomaa, Patience Gyapong

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 10-15
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2020/v9i230148

Antacids are substances commonly used by patients to obtain fast symptomatic relief from dyspepsia. They are weak bases which neutralize excess gastric acid and subsequently raise the pH of the gastric contents. The potency of the antacids depends mainly on their acid neutralization capacity (ANC) and this can vary from one brand to another. Several dosage forms of antacids are available for use by patients. However, In Ghana, suspensions are the commonest dosage form of antacids which is preferred by patients.

The objective of this study was to determine the acid neutralizing capacity of six (6) randomly selected brands of antacid suspensions on the Ghanaian market using potentiometric acid-base titration. The samples were coded A-F to avoid any bias in the study. All the sampled brands had more than one year to expiry as indicated on their label.

Brand D had the highest ANC of 29.70 mEq/dose whiles brand A had the lowest ANC of 11.25 mEq/dose. From the results obtained, it can be inferred that acid neutralization can be more effective and rapidly achieved with liquid antacids containing a high amount of magnesium hydroxide and aluminium Hydroxide. Hence, for acute symptomatic relief from dyspepsia, antacids containing a higher concentration of magnesium hydroxide and aluminium hydroxide would be most beneficial to patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study to Analyze the Motivational Patterns among Students of a Healthcare University in UAE Using the Achievement Goal Questionnaire (Revised)

Joan Bryant Kumar, B. K. Manjunatha Goud

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 16-21
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2020/v9i230149

Aims: This cross sectional study was conducted on students at Ras Al Khaimah Medical and Health Sciences University to analyze the motivation patterns in the health sciences university students.

Methodology: Total number of students who participated were 145. Data was entered into SPSS 22 software and analyzed. Student ‘t’ test was used to compare among the groups.

Results: The study results showed that all students exhibited highest scores of Mastery Approach goal motivation >10.62±4.24; but there was a decay in the later years of study and the Mastery Avoidance scores increased. This was more pronounced in the medical students (P =0.02).

Conclusion: This work underscores the notion that health sciences students are highly motivated and strive hard to achieve their goals. This study can be used to develop teaching methodologies and assessments that promote deep approaches to learning.

Open Access Original Research Article

Standardization of Poly Herbal Cosmetic Formula on Abnormal Pigmentation in Cutaneous Wound Healing – A Preliminary Study

K. A. J. S. Priyadarshani, E. D. T. P. Gunarathna, R. D. H. Kulathunga

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 22-30
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2020/v9i230150

Abnormal pigmentation in cutaneous wound healing has become a major cosmetic issue in the current society. Rising popularity of green labeled cosmetics which are environmentally sustainable with minimum side effects have greater demand in the world cosmetic market.  Standardization of herbal formula is essential in order to assess the quality of drugs. Hence, the research study was designed to standardize the selected herbs based on comprehensive literary study on selected Varnaya Dravya (complexion promoting herbs) mentioned in Ayurveda authentic texts and Sri Lankan traditional manuscripts comprising of Terminalia chebula Retz, Terminalia belerica (Gaertn). Roxb, Phyllanthus emblica Linn, Rubia cordifolia Linn, Curcuma longa Trim, and Sesamum indicum Linn. Authentication of herbal ingreedients has been carried out at Bandaranayaka Memorial Ayurveda Research Institute, Nawinna, Sri Lanka. Microscopic identification, Moisture content, pH value, Total ash content and Colouring matter were tested determind through paper chromatography under WHO (2011) guidelines. Microscopic identification revealed that the poly herbal cosmetic formula in powder form contains yellow colour cells, stone cells, group of elongated stone cells, transparent cells, pitted vessels, spiral vessels, vessels filled with red, small fibers, oil globules, starch granules, needle shape crystals, hair and Trichoid. Moreover, moisture content of the formula was 6.3%, pH - 5.92 and total ash value - 4.45%. Determination of colouring matter indicated formula does not contain synthetic dyes. In addition, secondary plant metabolites like phenolic, tannins and saponins were present. Pharmacodynamics potential of the formula showed 25% kashaya (astringent) and tiktta (bitter) rasa (taste) accordingly. Further, 46% and 27% of formula showed ruksha (dryness) and laghu (lightness) guna (properties) along with 83% and 67% indicated ushna virya.

(hot in potency) and madura (sweet) vipaka respectively. Due to presence of secondary metabolites, the poly herbal formula has anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-oxidant potentials which will be favorable for skin complexion protection from bacteria and fungi. Moreover, Lekhana action gives scraping effect which is important for removing the scar.

The study suggested that parameters found to be sufficient to evaluate the herbal cosmetic powder and could be used as reference standards and applicability of this formulae should be validated with a preclinical and clinical trials.

Open Access Review Article

An Overview of Methods of Extraction, Isolation and Characterization of Natural Medicinal Plant Products in Improved Traditional Medicine Research

Dobgima John Fonmboh, Ejoh Richard Abah, Tembe Estella Fokunang, Bayaga Herve, Gerald Ngo Teke, Ngono Mballa Rose, Njinkio Nono Borgia, Lovet Benyella Fokunang, Banin Nyuyki Andrew, Nubia Kaba, Ngameni Bathelemy, Fokunang Charles Ntungwen

Asian Journal of Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Page 31-57
DOI: 10.9734/ajrimps/2020/v9i230152

Herbal plants are very important in traditional community use and enrich our plant biodiversity and conservation. Natural products are vital substances of traditional knowledge systems in complementary and alternative medicine, nutraceutical, food supplements, and pharmaceutical bioactive metabolites of new chemical entities. Bioactive secondary metabolites from herbal plants of different forms are main sources and provide major opportunities for drug active pharmaceuticals due to the diverse flora and fauna biodiversity that produces the necessary available chemical diversity. There has been an increasing popularity in phytochemical research within the high through put (HTS) screening programs in search of lead. Phytochemicals of herbal extracts for traditional uses contain various types of bioactive metabolites of pharmaceutical and pharmacotherapeutic nature, and many phytomedicines for different therapeutic areas have been derived from herbal products. This paper is aimed at giving an insight into the extraction, isolation, and characterization of the rich medicinal plant biodiversity of potential pharmaceutical importance and the major drawbacks and challenges in the extraction, isolation, and characterization of phytochemicals in plant extracts. Phytochemicals in medicinal plants have been studied with more emphasis on the extraction process which is a vital stage in the analysis of bioactive compounds in medicinal plant research. The advantages and disadvantages of the different extraction methods is important to discuss following the regulatory guidelines and different pharmacopoeia. The analysis of bioactive molecules in herbal products involves the applications of various phytochemical screening methods, and the use of chromatographic techniques such as TLC and HPLC, including in some cases the non-chromatographic methods like Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR), immunoassay. This paper has been motivated by the challenges faced by most pharmacy students in data mining of information on phytochemical screening and testing of biological activities in projects related to herbal plants research. This write up is also geared towards providing students with information on the preclinical drug discovery process towards the formulation of an improved traditional medicine/ phytomedicine.